Document Type : Conceptual Paper


KENMS, International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


The study has reviewed a significant number of research articles to examine the effects of cultural intelligence and learning styles on leadership effectiveness. Almost all the articles reviewed were empirical in nature and few conceptual papers were reviewed as well. Fifteen (15) relevant research were reviewed to establish the theoretical proposition of the effect of cultural intelligence on leadership effectiveness, while another fifteen (15) articles were reviewed to examine the effect of learning style on leadership effectiveness. Most of the reviewed papers indicated that cultural intelligence and learning style has significant positive effects on leadership effectiveness. From the review, it was also found that there is lack of studies examining learning style effect on leadership effectiveness particularly in pharmaceutical sector. This study will contribute by establishing the link between cultural intelligence, learning style and leadership effectiveness simultaneously. Also, this study will be able to use to design the training and development programs to enhance, cultural intelligence and to adopt appropriate learning style to improve leadership effectiveness in commercial enterprise sector, particularly in Malaysia.


Main Subjects

©2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

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