The Influence of Spiritual Leadership and the Complexity of Assignments on Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance at Paramadina University

Document Type : Original Research


Faculty of Economic & Business, Paramadina University, Jakarta, Indonesia


This study analyzes the influence of spiritual leadership and assignment complexity on employee performance through job satisfaction. Spiritual leadership variables and assignment complexity are used as predictors of employee performance. Job satisfaction as an intervening variable in the research model. The purpose of this study is to analyze the direct and indirect effects generated by spiritual leadership and assignment complexity on employee performance through job satisfaction at Paramadina University. This study uses the Partial Least Square (PLS) method.  The total respondents in this study amounted to 61 people. The sampling technique used a purposive sampling approach adapted to the needs of the study. Based on the analysis test of the Smart PLS program used, there is a direct influence of spiritual leadership on employee performance and assignment complexity on job satisfaction, both of which have a positive but not significant effect, while job satisfaction on employee performance has a negative and insignificant effect. This study only limits the variables of spiritual leadership and the complexity of the assignment which are linked through job satisfaction to employee performance. The data is limited only for lecturers and employees who work at Paramadina University as the object of research. This research develops knowledge in the field of human resource management. Both variables indicate that leadership and assignment complexity can affect employee performance at paramadina university. Job satisfaction as a control variable is able to show variables that affect employee performance.


Main Subjects

©2021 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

Abbas, A., Saud, M., Usman, I., & Ekowati, D. (2020). Servant leadership and religiosity: An indicator of employee performance in the education sector. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 13(4).
Agusniwar, I., Azis, N., & Darsono, N. (2017). Pengaruh kompleksitas tugas dan locus of control terhadap kinerja karyawan. Jurnal Magister Manajemen Fakultas Ekonomi Dan Bisnis Unsyiah, 1(1).
Ahakwa, I., Yang, J., Agba Tackie, E., & Atingabili, S. (2021). The Influence of Employee Engagement, Work Environment and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment and Performance of Employees: A Sampling Weights in PLS path Modelling. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 4(3).
Ali, M., Aziz, S., Pham, T. N., Babalola, M. T., & Usman, M. (2020). A positive human health perspective on how spiritual leadership weaves its influence on employee safety performance: The role of harmonious safety passion. Safety Science, 131.
Arokiasamy, A. R. A., & Tat, H. H. (2020). Exploring the influence of transformational leadership on work engagement and workplace spirituality of academic employees in the private higher education institutions in Malaysia. Management Science Letters, 10(4).
Atmadja, A. T., & Kurniawan Saputra, K. A. (2018). The influence of role conflict, complexity of assignment, role obscurity and locus of control on internal auditor performance. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal, 22(5).
Bakotić, D. (2016). Relationship between job satisfaction and organisational performance. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja , 29(1).
Bayighomog, S. W., & Araslı, H. (2019). Workplace spirituality–customer engagement Nexus: the mediated role of spiritual leadership on customer–oriented boundary–spanning behaviors. Service Industries Journal, 39(7–8).
Becton, J. B., Carr, J. C., Mossholder, K. W., & Walker, H. J. (2017). Differential Effects of Task Performance, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Job Complexity on Voluntary Turnover. Journal of Business and Psychology, 32(4).
Chae, H., & Choi, J. N. (2018). Contextualizing the effects of job complexity on creativity and task performance: Extending job design theory with social and contextual contingencies. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(2).
Cowling, A., & Mailer, C. (2013). Managing human resources. In Managing Human Resources.
D’alonzo, L., Leva, M. C., & Bucciarelli, E. (2021). Comparing passenger satisfaction, employees’ perspective and performance on quality and safety indicators: A field study. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(10).
Danner-Schröder, A., & Ostermann, S. M. (2020). Towards a Processual Understanding of Task Complexity: Constructing task complexity in practice. Organization Studies.
Davis, K., & Newstrom, J. W. (1993). Human Behavior at Work Management. In London: Heinernann.
Debusscher, J., Hofmans, J., & De Fruyt, F. (2017). Core self-evaluations as a moderator of the relationship between task complexity, job resources, and performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(3).
Dessler, G. (2013). Human Resource Management (13th ed.). Prentice Hall, New York.
Folami, L., & Bline, D. (2012). Relationship among Job Satisfaction, Task Complexity, and Organizational Context in Public Accounting. International Review of Business Research Papers, 8(4).
García-Mainar, I., & Montuenga-Gómez, V. M. (2020). Over-Qualification and the Dimensions of Job Satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 147(2).
Gbande, R. (2016). Effects of Reward System on Productivity in the Local Government System in Benue State. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development Www.Iiste.Org ISSN, 7(22).
Hamid, N. (2020). The application of spiritual leadership affects job satisfaction and deviant behavior in the workplace. Human Systems Management.
Handayani, S. &, & Bakhri, S. (2017). Available Online through the effect of spiritual leadership on organisational commitment and employee performance: A case of Public Universities in South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia. Pharmarcy and Technology, 9(1).
Hidayah, S., & Sutopo, S. (2017). The Role of Spiritual-Based Leadership as Predictor in Improving Employee Performance. Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, 8(1).
Hunsaker, W. D. (2019). Spiritual leadership and job burnout: Mediating effects of employee well-being and life satisfaction. Management Science Letters, 9(8).
Hutahayan, B. (2019). How Spiritual Leadership Affects Job Satisfaction and Workplace Deviant Behavior (Study at the Regional Secretariat of the City of Palangkaraya). International Journal of Applied Management Theory and Research, 2(1).
Jalagat, R. (2016). Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, and Motivation: A Critical Review of their Relationship. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 5(6).
Jensen, S. M., & Luthans, F. (2006). Entrepreneurs as authentic leaders: Impact on employees’ attitudes. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 27(8).
Kawiana, I. G. P., & Riana, I. G. (2016). The Mediating Effect of Calling on Spiritual Leadership and Job Satisfaction in Village Credit Institution. Scientific Journal of PPI - UKM, 3(6).
Kreitner, R., & Kinicki, A. (2007). Organizational Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Field. In Organizational Behavior.
Kullab, M. A. M., & Kassim, R. M. (2017). Determinants of Working Environment , Employee Loyalty and Employee Turnover of ICT- SME Industry. World Journal of Research and Review, 5(5).
Kurniawan, K. A., Brahmasari, I. A., & Ratih, I. A. B. (2016). The Influence Of Organizational Culture, Task Complexity, and Competence On Job Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Nurse Performance Of Kodam VII / Wirabuana Sulawesi Indonesian National Army Hospital. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 5(1).
Lan, T. S., Chuang, K. C., Li, H. X., Tu, J. F., & Huang, H. S. (2020). Symmetric modeling of communication effectiveness and satisfaction for communication software on job performance. Symmetry, 12(3).
Libby, R., & Lipe, M. G. (1992). Incentives, Effort, and the Cognitive Processes Involved in Accounting-Related Judgments. Journal of Accounting Research, 30(2).
Liu, P., & Li, Z. (2012). Task complexity: A review and conceptualization framework. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 42(6).
Lo Destro, C., Chernikova, M., Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Effect of regulatory modes on work performance: the moderating role of job familiarity and job complexity / El efecto del modo de regulación en el rendimiento laboral: el rol moderador de la familiaridad con el trabajo y la complejidad de la tarea. Revista de Psicologia Social, 34(1).
Malik, R., Yadav, J., & Yadav, D. (2018). Role of spiritual leadership in enhancing employees’ job performance: a study of organized retail sector in India. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(2S).
Mathis, R. L., Jackson, J. H., & Valentine, S. R. (2015). Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives. In Human Resource Management (7th ed.). Cengage Learning, Boston.
Mira, M. S., Choong, Y. V., & Thim, C. K. (2019). The Effect of HRM Practices and Employees’ Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance. Management Science Letters, 9(6), 771–786.
Nadreeva, L., Gaynutdinova, J., & Rakhimova, G. (2016). Productivity and motivation of employees in the services sector. Proceedings of the 27th International Business Information Management Association Conference - Innovation Management and Education Excellence Vision 2020: From Regional Development Sustainability to Global Economic Growth, IBIMA 2016.
Nurmi, N., & Hinds, P. J. (2016). Job complexity and learning opportunities: A silver lining in the design of global virtual work. In Journal of International Business Studies (Vol. 47, Issue 6).
Oedzes, J. J., Van der Vegt, G. S., Rink, F. A., & Walter, F. (2019). On the origins of informal hierarchy: The interactive role of formal leadership and task complexity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(3).
Oyewunmi, A. E., Oyewunmi, O. A., Ojo, I. S., & Oludayo, O. A. (2015). Leaders’ Emotional Intelligence and Employees’ Performance: A Case in Nigeria’s Public Healthcare Sector. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 5(3), 23–37.
Park, H. S., Baker, C., & Lee, D. W. (2008). Need for Cognition, Task Complexity, and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Management in Engineering, 24(2).
Pio, R. J. (2021). The mediation effect of quality of worklife and job satisfaction in the relationship between spiritual leadership to employee performance. International Journal of Law and Management.
Pio, R. J., & Lengkong, F. D. J. (2020). The relationship between spiritual leadership to quality of work life and ethical behavior and its implication to increasing the organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Management Development.
Pio, R. J., & Tampi, J. R. E. (2018). The influence of spiritual leadership on quality of work life, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Law and Management, 60(2).
Rachmawan, T. P., & Nita Aryani, D. (2020). Kepemimpinan Spiritual dan Reward Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Melalui Kualitas Kehidupan Kerja Dan Kepuasan Kerja sebagai Variabel Intervenin. Jurnal Ilmiah Manajemen Dan Bisnis, 21(2), 136–148.
Riaz, O. (2013). Spirituality and transformational leadership in education. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 74(2-A(E)).
Robbins, S., & Judge, T. (2009). Organizational Behaviour: Concepts, Controversies, Applications. In Development.
Sabuhari, R., Sudiro, A., Irawanto, D. W., & Rahayu, M. (2020). The effects of human resource flexibility, employee competency, organizational culture adaptation and job satisfaction on employee performance. Management Science Letters, 10(2), 1775–1786.
Samul, J. (2020). Spiritual leadership: Meaning in the sustainableworkplace. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(1).
Sani, A., Soetjipto, B. E., & Maharani, V. (2016). The effect of spiritual leadership on workplace spirituality, job satisfaction and Ihsan behaviour (a study on nurses of Aisyiah Islamic Hospital in Malang, Indonesia). International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 14(11).
Sanusi, A., & Manan, A. (2014). A Study on Employees Performance: Spiritual Leadership and Work Motivation with Mediation Work Satisfaction at the University of Darul Ulum, Indonesia M Mudjib Musta’in Doctoral Student. European Journal of Business and Management Www.Iiste.Org ISSN, 6(39).
Siengthai, S., & Pila-Ngarm, P. (2016). The interaction effect of job redesign and job satisfaction on employee performance. Evidence-Based HRM, 4(2).
Sixtus Onyebuchi, O., Mohamed Saat, M., Fariha Abdullah, D., & Tan, C. (2015). the Impact of Spiritual Leadership on Employee Performance in Nigerian Micro Finance Banks. 34 Th The IIER International Conference, August.
Srivastava, A., Locke, E. A., Judge, T. A., & Adams, J. W. (2010). Core self-evaluations as causes of satisfaction: The mediating role of seeking task complexity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(2).
Stefanovska–petkovska, M., Petrovska, I., Bojadziev, M., & Schaeffer, I. (2019). The effects of organizational culture and dimensions on job satisfaction and work-life balance. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 15(1).
Sudiardhita, I. K. R., Dianta, K., Susita, D., & Aisyah, N. (2019). Placement , Career Development on Employee Performance With Job Satisfaction as Intervening Variables. DLSU Business & Economics Review, 28(3).
Syabarrudin, A., Eliyana, A., & Naimah, J. (2020). Does employees’ self-efficacy drive their organizational commitment? Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(4).
Tobroni. (2015). Spiritual Leadership: a Solution of the Leadership Crisis in Islamic Education in Indonesia. British Journal of Education, 3(11).
Tsui, P. L., Lin, Y. S., & Yu, T. H. (2013). The Influence of Psychological Contract and Organizational Commitment on Hospitality Employee Performance. Social Behavior and Personality, 41(3), 443–452.
Wang, C. J., Tsai, H. T., & Tsai, M. T. (2014). Linking transformational leadership and employee creativity in the hospitality industry: The influences of creative role identity, creative self-efficacy, and job complexity. Tourism Management, 40.
Xi-Zhou, T., & Jin-Yu, X. (2011). Impact of objective and subjective task complexity on employee performance and satisfaction: Moderating role of psychological capital. International Conference on Management Science and Engineering - Annual Conference Proceedings.
Yang, F., Qing, T., Zhang, L., & Tang, L. (2017). Feeling Energized: How and When Spiritual Leadership Enhances Employee Job Performance. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2017(1).
Yuliandi, & Tahir, R. (2019). Work discipline, competence, empowerment, job satisfaction, and employee performance. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(3).
Yusuf, D. C., Hamzah, D., & Yusuf, R. M. (2020). The Effect of Compensation and Job Environment on Employee Loyalty through Job Satisfaction as an Intervening Variable. Hasanuddin Journal of Business Strategy, 2(4).
Zacher, H., & Frese, M. (2011). Maintaining a focus on opportunities at work: The interplay between age, job complexity, and the use of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(2).