Partial Least Squares in Explaining the Relationship between the Using of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Tools with Teenagers' Depression

Document Type : Original Research


Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


Information and communications technology (ICT) are interactive technologies that allow the creation or sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks (Internet, Instagram, and Telegram). The purpose of the present study is to prepare a structural modeling approach to explain the relationship between using ICT tools (cell phones, Internet, Instagram, and Telegram) and teenagers' depression in Maku Free Zone. The research hypotheses were tested with survey methods. The study population was adults between 17 to 18 years of age. In total, 265 participants were randomly selected according to Morgan Table and then the information was collected through questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling SMART PLS. The findings showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the use of ICT tools (Cell Phones, Internet, Instagram, and Telegram) and teenagers' depression in the Maku Free Zone. Therefore, the misuse of the internet, cell phones, and social networks caused fewer face-to-face encounters and made them more introspective. In this way, individuals began to distance themselves from direct communication that resulted in depression and loneliness.


Main Subjects

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