Document Type : Original Research


1 School of Accounting, Business & Management, FTMS Global, Cyberjaya, Malaysia

2 School of Accounting, Business & Management , FTMS Global, Cyberjaya, Malaysia


In the wake of increased need for business processes that promote environmental sustainability, many organizations have adopted Green ICT as way to promote environmentally friendly agenda. However, there is scanty information on Green ICT adoption in Malaysia especially by multinationals. More specifically, the existing research does not shed light on the factors that facilitate Green ICT adoption by multinationals in Malaysia. Therefore, it is vital to examine the various factors that could contribute to success in Green ICT adoption efforts by MNCs in Malaysia. The independent variables in this research comprise technology, environment, attitude and perceived usefulness of Green ICT. The theories that underlined this research consist of the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Stakeholder Theory (ST) and Institutional Theory (IT). In order to test the relationship between the theories and to establish the measurement model validity, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used and Multiple Regression was used to test the hypotheses. The research design adopted for this research was explanatory and the target population was employees of multinationals in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The researcher collected data from the employees through online self-administered questionnaires and by hand survey questionnaires between July and August 2017. A sample of 138 multinational employees responses were collected using a pre-designed survey questionnaire based on the 5-point Likert Scale. The data gathered from the field from the questionnaires was recorded and coded into SPSS and AMOS for analysis. The findings revealed that environment, attitude and perceived usefulness have a positive significant impact on the adoption of Green ICT. Besides, the findings revealed that technology has no impact on Green ICT adoption. The outcome of the study will provide useful insights to Malaysian government to adjust the existing Green ICT policies at the national level and contributes to the growth of the future master plan.


Akman, I., Mishra, A. “Green information technology practices among IT professionals: theory of planned behavior perspective”. Problemy Ekorozwoju – Problems of Sustainable Development, 2014, 9 (2), 47–54.
Bang-Ning Hwang, Chi-Yo Huang and Chih-Hsiung Wu, “A TOE Approach to Establish a Green Supply Chain Adoption Decision Model in the Semiconductor Industry”, 2016
Bansal, P.; Roth, K, “Why companies go green: A model of ecological responsiveness”. Acad. Manag. J, 2000, 43, 717–736. 31. 
Bachour, N.; Chasteen, L, “Optimizing the Value of Green IT Projects within Organisations”. In Proceedings of the Green Technologies Conference, Grapevine, TX, USA, 15–16 April 2010;
Byrne, B. M, Structural equation modeling with AMOS, (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge, 2010
Buchalcevova, A. & Gala, L., “Green ICT drivers and inhibitors perceived by the Czech SMEs”. Journal of Systems Integration [online], 2013, 4(2) pp. 43–49. ISSN 1804-2724
Chugh, R., Wibowo, S. and Grandhi, S., “Environmentally sustainable Information and Communication Technology usage: awareness and practices of Indian Information and Communication Technology professionals”. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2016, 131, pp.435-446.
Chulmo Koo, Namho Chung, Young-Chan Lee, “The Influential Motivations of Green It Device Use and The Role of Reference Group Perspective”, College of Hotel and Tourism Management, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2013
Creswell, J. W., “Research Design ; Qualitative, Quantitative and Mexed Methods Appraches”. 4th Edition ed. s.l.:SAGE, 2014
David M. Weber, Robert J. Kauffman, “What drives global ICT adoption? Analysis and research directions”, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 2011, 10 (2011) 683–701
Davis, F. D, “Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology”, MIS Quarterly, 1989 13, 3, 319-339.
Davis, F.D., R.P. Bagozzi and P.R. Warshaw, “User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models” Management Science, 1989, 35(8): 982-1003.
Dörnyei, Z, “Research methods in applied linguistics”. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. & Jackson, P. R., “Management Research: Theory and Practice”. (SAGE series in Management Research) ed. s.l.:SAGE, 2008
Franklin Wabwoba, Gregory W. Wanyembi, Stanley Omuterema, and Stephen Makau Mutua, "Pervasiveness of green ICT awareness amongst Kenyan ICT personnel"; International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1,
Hair, F. J, Black, C. W, Babin, J. B & Anderson, E. R, Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th Ed, 2010
Henseler, J., & Fassott, G, Testing moderating effects in PLS path models: An illustration of available procedures. In: V. Esposito Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler & H. Wang (Eds), Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods, and applications. Berlin: Springer (in print), 2009
Hoyle, R. H., & Panter, A. T,  “Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications” (pp. 158–176). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications,1995
Ilker Etikan, Sulaiman Abubakar Musa, Rukayya Sunusi Alkassim, “Comparison of Convenience Sampling and Purposive Sampling”; American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 2015
Jung Lee, Frank A. Cerreto and Jihyun Lee, “Theory of Planned Behavior and Teachers’ Decisions Regarding Use of Educational Technology”, Educational Technology & Society, 2010, 13 (1), 152–164.
Kavita Suryawanshia, Sameer Narkhedeb, “Green ICT for Sustainable Development: A Higher Education Perspective”, Procedia Computer Science, 2015, 70 ( 2015 ) 701 – 707
Khor, K., Thurasamy, R., Ahmad, N., Halim, H. and May-Chiun, L., “Bridging the Gap of Green IT/IS and Sustainable Consumption”. Global Business Review, 2015, 16(4), pp.571-593.
Kline, R. B, Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford, 2011
Krauss, S. E., “Research Paradigms and Meaning Making: A Primer”, 2005
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W, “Determining sample size for research activities”. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1970, 30, 607-610.
Lacovou, C.L.; Benbasat, I.; Dexter, A.S, “Electronic data interchange and small organizations: Adoption and impact of technology”. MIS Q, 1995, 465–485.
Laura-Diana Radu, "Determinants of Green ICT Adoption in Organizations: A Theoretical Perspective", Department of Research, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi (Sustainability), 2016, 8(8), p.731)
Lim Wei Ping, "A Study on factors influencing Green Information Technology Adoption Among Manufacturing Firms in Penang, Malaysia", 2012
Lin, H.-F.; Lin, S.-M, “Determinants of E-business diffusion: A test of the technology diffusion perspective.” Technovation, 2012, 28, 135–145.
Looi Theam Choy, “The Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Methodology: Comparison and Complimentary between Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches”; IOSR Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 2016, Volume 19, Issue 4, Ver. III
Mathupayas Thongmak, “Youths’ Green Information and Communications Technology Acceptance and Implications for the Innovation Decision Process” Electronic Green Journal, 2016, 1(39)
Ming-Horng Weng and Chieh-Yu Lin, “Determinants of green innovation adoption for small and medium-size enterprises (SMES)” African Journal of Business Management, 2011, Vol. 5(22), pp. 9154-9163,30 September, 2011
Molla, A, “Organisational Motivations for Green IT: Exploring Green IT Matrix and Motivation Models”, In Proceedings of the 13th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Hyderabad, India, Paper 13, 2011
Mosharrof Hussain, Masud and Noreha Abdul Malik,Adoption of Green ICT in IIUM towards Sustainable Environment”, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering International Islamic University Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2014
Murugesan, S, “Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices”. IT Prof, 2011, 10, 24–33.
Nancy Wairimu  & Fridah Theuri, “Factors That Influence the Level of Staff Involvement in the Strategic Planning Process in Public Institutions”, IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 2014, Volume 16, Issue 4. Ver. II (Apr. 2014), pp 21-27.
OECD,“Smarter and Greener? Information Technology and the Environment: Positive or negative impacts?” 2010a
Saunders, Thornhill and Lewis, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2009
Shahin Dezdar, "Green information technology adoption: influencing factors and extension of theory of planned behavior", Social Responsibility Journal, 2017, Vol. 13 Issue: 2, pp.292-306.
Tornatzky, L. and Fleischer, M, “The process of technology innovation”, Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1990
Welman, C., Kruger, F., Mitchell, B. and Huysamen, G, “Research methodology”. 1st ed. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 2012
Wilson, J.  “Essentials of Business Research: A Guide to Doing Your Research Project”. s.l.:SAGE, 2009
Zhu, K.; Kraemer, K.L, “Post-adoption variations in usage and value of e-business by organizations: Cross-country evidence from the retail industry”. Inf. Syst,2005, 16, 61–84.