Document Type : Original Research


Department of Economics, Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB) Tehran, Iran


The present study explores the mechanism of trade effects despite the foreign exchange fluctuations and oil shocks on women's job opportunities in the periods of the recession and prosperity in the country using the Markov-switching Regime ARCH Model during 1984-2016. According to the results of the model estimation, Commercial freedom has a negative impact on women's job opportunities during the recession, which means that government spending in this period is mostly spent on imports. Foreign exchange rate fluctuations have a negative impact on women's job opportunities during the recession and with negative oil shocks, foreign exchange earnings are declined, and government spending is dedicated to import to cope up with inflation and this leads to the reduction of job opportunities and women’s employment. This has led to reduced job opportunities and reduced employment for women. Also, the impact of international trade variables, economic growth rate and positive oil shock on women's employment during the prosperity period is significant, which means that in a country with high trade openness, women's employment will also improve and there will be more job opportunities for women, which can help the country's employment. Therefore, government and private support for women's employment, self-employment, women's entrepreneurship and international trade opportunities can be a positive driver of women's employment growth.


Amemiya, T. (1985) “Advanced econometrics” Basil Black well, Oxford, UK
Baliamoune-Lutz, M. (2007). Globalisation and Gender Inequality: Is Africa Different?. Journal of African Economies, 16(2): 301-348.
Baltagi, Badi H. (2005) “Econometric Analysis of Panel Data” John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Baliamoune, Mina (2002) "Gender Inequality and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan
Bond, S (2002) “Dynamic panel data models: Dynamic panel data models: a guide to micro data methods and practice” working paper.
Blundell, R & Bond, S & Windmeijer, f (2000) “Estimation in dynamic panel data models: improving on the performance of the standard GMM estimator” Institute for Fiscal Studies, IFS Working Papers W00/12
Brown, C., J. Pagan, and E. Rodríguez-Oreggia, (1999) “Occupational Attainment and Gender Earnings Differentials in Mexico,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 53(1), 123-35.
Blanchard, O. (1998), “Employment Protection and Unemployment”, Draft. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Bergman, B.R. (1971) 'The effect on white incomes of discrimination in employment', Journal of Political Economy, vol 79, no 2, pp 294-313
Castello, A., & Domenech, R. (2006). Human capital inequality, life expectancy and economic growth. Economic Journal, 218, 187-200.
Dollar, D. and R. Gatti. 1999. "Gender Inequality, Income, and Growth: Are Good Times good for Women?" Mimeographed. Washington DC: The World Bank
Ebadi, J., & Salehi, M. J.(2010).The impact of female and male human capital inequality on life expectancy at birth. Quarterly Journal of Research & Planning in Higher Education, 16(2), 81-98 (in Persian).
England, P. V. (1983), 'The failure of human capital theory to explain occupational sex segregation', Journal of Human Resources, 17, pp. 358- 71
Edwards, R. Reich, M. and Gordon, D.M. (1975), labor market segmentation, Lexington, Mass: Heath.
Gary S. Becker (1981, Enlarged ed., 1991). A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Hansen, L.P. (2008) “Generalized Method of Moments Estimation” The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Second Edition.
Hansen, L. P. (2001) “Generalized Method of Moments Estimation: A Time Series Perspective” Working Paper, University of Chicago.
Hill, A. & E. King. (1995). Women’s Education and Economic Wellbeing.Feminist Economics, 1(2): 1-26.
Hartman. 1981. The Family as the Locus of Gender, Class, and Political Struggle: The Example of Housework. Signs 6(3), 366-394.
Imbens, G. W. (1997). One-step estimators for over-identified generalized method of moment models, Review of Economic Studies, 64, pp. 359–383
Klasen, S. & F. Lamanna. (2008). The Impact of Gender inequality in Eeducation and Employment on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Update and Extensions. Ibero America Institute for Economic. Research (IAI). Discussion Papers 175.
Klasen, S., (2004), “The Decline in Income Growth Volatility in the United States: Evidence from Regional Data”, Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers, Monash University.Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
Le than Khoi (1991). L'education, Cultures et Societes, Paris, Publication de la Sorbonne.
Marks, G. and McMillan, J (2003). Declining Inequality?, the British Journal of Sociology. Vol. 54, n 4
Seguino, S., (2000), “Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis”, World Development, vol. 28, issue 7.
Seguino, S. 1998. Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis. Mimeographed. University of Vermont.
Smith, R. J. (1997) “Alternative semi-parametric likelihood approaches to generalized method of moment’s estimation” Economic Journal 107, pp. 503–519
Turner, J., (1998). The Structure of Sociological Theory, Sixth Edition, Wadsworth Publishing Company.
United Nation Development Program, Development Report (2006).
U.N., Human Development Report (2001) U. N. Washington, D. C.
World Bank, (2006), Annual Meeting Report
Walker, Stephen & Barton Len (1983). Gender, Class, Education. The Flamer Press.