Entrepreneurial Intentions among University Students: Insights from the University of Cape Coast

Document Type : Original Research


1 Department of Finance, University of Cape Coast, Central Region, Ghana

2 Department of Finance, National Petroleum Authority, Greater Accra, Ghana


In emerging nations like Ghana, unemployment has grown to be a serious worry for graduates. According to this perspective, the majority of graduates are recommended to start their own businesses rather than wait for positions from the government. This paper aims to examine the entrepreneurial intentions among University students, using variables such as Motivation, Family Background, Entrepreneurship Education and External Factors. This is a cross-sectional study where the results were based on the outcomes of a survey among the University of Cape Coast, school of Business students (n=130). Inferential statistical procedures such as the Pearson Product-Moment correlation test, Multiple Regression and Stepwise Regression Analysis were used to assess the study's specific aims and tested the four main hypotheses. The results indicated that all variables but Family Background positively influence students’ entrepreneurial intentions and that Motivation is statistically significant in analyzing the factors that significantly affect the students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Hence, more emphasis should be based on motivating the students both within and outside to enable them develop entrepreneurial mindsets. The study suggests that policymakers should focus on encouraging student entrepreneurship as it will be a proper management to deal with the severe unemployment issue in emerging countries, especially Ghana.


Main Subjects

©2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

Adu, I. N., Boakye, K. O., Suleman, A.-R., & Bingab, B. B. (2020). Exploring the factors that mediate the relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate students in Ghana. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 14(2), 215–228. https://doi.org/10.1108/apjie-07-2019-0052
Ambad, S. N. A., & Damit, D. H. D. A. (2016). Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention Among Undergraduate Students in Malaysia. Procedia Economics and Finance, 37, 108–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2212-5671(16)30100-9
Amofah, K., Saladrigues, R., & Akwaa-Sekyi, E. K. (2020). Entrepreneurial intentions among MBA students. Cogent Business & Management, 7(1), 1832401. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2020.1832401
Baah-Boateng, W. (2015). Unemployment in Ghana: a cross sectional analysis from demand and supply perspectives. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 6(4), 402–415. https://doi.org/10.1108/ajems-11-2014-0089
Barba-Sánchez, V., & Atienza-Sahuquillo, C. (2017). Entrepreneurial motivation and self-employment: evidence from expectancy theory. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 13(4), 1097–1115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-017-0441-z
Barringer, B. R., Jones, F. F., & Neubaum, D. O. (2005). A quantitative content analysis of the characteristics of rapid-growth firms and their founders. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(5), 663–687. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2004.03.004
Basu, A., & Virick, M. (2008). Assessing Entrepreneurial Intentions amongst Students:    A Comparative Study.  National Collegiate Inventors & Innovators Alliance. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
Bird, B. (1988). Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas: The Case for Intention. Academy ofManagementReview,13(3), 442–453. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1988.4306970
Block, J. H., Hoogerheide, L., & Thurik, R. (2011). Education and entrepreneurial choice: An instrumental variables analysis. International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 31(1), 23–33. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242611400470
Boahemaah, Li Xin, Courage Simon Kofi Dobge, & Wisdom Wise Kwabla Pomegbe. (2020). The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on the Entrepreneurial Intention of Students in Tertiary Institutions. The InternationalJournalofManagement,7(4),123–146. https://www.ijmae.com/article_115009_ad3609a75278735e3cf588688c8f9755.pdf
Bogatyreva, K., Edelman, L. F., Manolova, T. S., Osiyevskyy, O., & Shirokova, G. (2019). When do entrepreneurial intentions lead to actions? The role of national culture. Journal of Business Research96, 309–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.11.034
 Buli, B. M., & Yesuf, W. M. (2015). Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions. Education + Training, 57(8/9), 891–907. https://doi.org/10.1108/et-10-2014-0129
Carayannis, E. G., Evans, D., & Hanson, M. (2003). A cross-cultural learning strategy for entrepreneurship education: outline of key concepts and lessons learned from a comparative study of entrepreneurship students in France and the US. Technovation, 23(9), 757–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0166-4972(02)00030-5
Charles, V., & Gherman, T. (2013).  Factors Influencing Peruvian Women to Become Entrepreneurs. World Applied Sciences Journal, 27(10), 1345–1354. https://pure.northampton.ac.uk/en/publications/factors-influencing-peruvian-women-to-become-entrepreneurs
Diandra, D., & Azmy, A. (2020). Understanding Definition of Entrepreneurship. International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics7(5), 301-306.
Eesley, C., & Wang, Y. (2016). Social influence in career choice: Evidence from a randomized field experiment on entrepreneurial mentorship. Research Policy, 46(3), 636–650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2017.01.010
Esfandiar, K., Sharifi-Tehrani, M., Pratt, S., & Altinay, L. (2019). Understanding entrepreneurial intentions: A developed integrated structural model approach. Journal of Business Research, 94, 172–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.10.045
Fairlie, R. W., & Robb, A. (2007). Families, Human Capital, and Small Business: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey. ILR Review, 60(2), 225–245. https://doi.org/10.1177/001979390706000204
Fayolle, A., Gailly, B., & Lassas‐Clerc, N. (2006). Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmes: a new methodology. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(9), 701–720. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090590610715022
Georgescu, M. A., & Herman, E. (2020). The Impact of the Family Background on Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions: An Empirical Analysis. Sustainability, 12(11), 4775. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114775
Haque, M. R., Kabir, M. Z., Rahman, M. M., Chowdhury, S. P., & Islam, S. (2017). Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Study on Students from Countryside University. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 7(10), 972–980. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.aefr.2017.710.972.980
Henry, C., Hill, F., & Leitch, C. (2005). Entrepreneurship education and training: Can entrepreneurship be taught? part I. Education + Training, 47(2), 98–111. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910510586524
Hueso, J. A., Jaén, I., & Liñán, F. (2020). From personal values to entrepreneurial intention: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior &Amp; Research, 27(1), 205–230. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijebr-06-2020-0383
Ishfaq Ahmed, Musarrat, M., & Ramz, M. (2012). Do external factors influence students' entrepreneurial inclination? an evidence based approach. Entrepreneurship - Born, Made and Educated. https://doi.org/10.5772/36570
ISSER. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2022, from https://isser.ug.edu.gh/research-impact/only-10-graduates-find-jobs-after-first-year-%E2%80%93-isser
Jena, R. (2020). Measuring the impact of business management Student’s attitude towards entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention: A case study. Computers in Human Behavior, 107, 106275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106275
Jesurajan, S. V. A., & Gnanadhas, M. E. (2011). A Study on the Factors Motivating Women to Become Entrepreneurs in Tirunelveli District. Asian Journal of Business and Economics. http://onlineresearchjournals.com/ajbe/art/52.pdf
Johnmark Reuel, D., Munene, J. C., & Balunywa, W. (2016). Robustness of personal initiative in moderating entrepreneurial intentions and actions of disabled students. Cogent Business &Amp; Management, 3(1), 1169575. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2016.1169575
Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5-6), 411–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0883-9026(98)00033-0
Kuratko, D. F., & Morris, M. H. (2018). Corporate Entrepreneurship: A Critical Challenge for Educators and Researchers. Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 1(1), 42–60. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515127417737291
Laspita, S., Breugst, N., Heblich, S., & Patzelt, H. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(4), 414–435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2011.11.006
Laure Humbert, A. and Drew, E. (2010), "Gender, entrepreneurship and motivational factors in an Irish context", International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 2 No. 2, pp. 173-196. https://doi.org/10.1108/17566261011051026
Lebbaeus Asamani, & Abigail Opoku Mensah. (2012). Entrepreneurial Inclination among Ghanaian University Students: The Case of University of Cape Coast, Ghana. European Journal of Business and Management,5(19),113–125. https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/EJBM/article/download/7279/7438
Lee, L., Wong, P. K., Foo, M. D., & Leung, A. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 124–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.04.003
Leedy, P. D., & Ormrod, J. E. (2015). Practical research. Planning and design (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Journal of Applied Learning &Amp; Teaching, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2018.1.2.15
Liguori, E., Winkler, C., Winkel, D., Marvel, M. R., Keels, J. K., van Gelderen, M., & Noyes, E. (2018). The Entrepreneurship Education Imperative: Introducing EE&P. Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 1(1), 5–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515127417737290
Lukman, S., Bao, P. X., Kweku‐Lugu, B., Arkorful, V. E., Latif, A., Gadabu, A., Charmaine‐Kwade, P., Basiru, I., & Sadiq, M. A. (2021). Diasporan students social entrepreneurship intention: The moderating role of institutional support. Journal of Public Affairs, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2108
Maharana, N., & Chaudhury, S. K. (2022). Entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intent: A comparative study of the private and Government University students. IIM Ranchi Journal of Management Studies, 1(2), 191–208. https://doi.org/10.1108/irjms-09-2021-0118
Mueller, S. (2011). Increasing entrepreneurial intention: effective entrepreneurship course characteristics. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 13(1), 55. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijesb.2011.040416
Ndofirepi, T. M. (2020). Relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial goal intentions: psychological traits as mediators. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-020-0115-x.
Nowinski, W., & Haddoub, M. Y. (2019). The role of inspiring role models in enhancing entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Business Research, 96, 183–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.11.005
Nunfam, V. F., Asitik, A. J., & Afrifa-Yamoah, E. (2021). Personality, Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intention Among Ghanaian Students. Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 5(1), 65–88. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515127420961040
O’brien, R. M. (2007). A Caution Regarding Rules of Thumb for Variance Inflation Factors. Quality &Amp; Quantity, 41(5), 673–690. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-006-9018-6
Oosterbeek, H., van Praag, M., & Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation. European Economic Review, 54(3), 442–454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2009.08.002
Ozaralli, N. and Rivenburgh, N.K. (2016) Entrepreneurial Intention: Antecedents to Entrepreneurial Behavior in the U.S.A. and Turkey. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 6, 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40497-016-0047-x
Packham, G., Jones, P., Miller, C., Pickernell, D., & Thomas, B. (2010). Attitudes towards entrepreneurship education: A comparative analysis. Education + Training, 52(8/9), 568–586. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400911011088926
Parvaneh Gelard. (2011). Impact of some contextual factors on entrepreneurial intention of university students. African Journal of Business Management, 5(26). https://doi.org/10.5897/ajbm10.891
Proctor, M., Grealish, L., Coates, M., & Sears, P. (2000). Nurses’ knowledge of palliative care in the Australian Capital Territory. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 6(9), 421–428. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2000.6.9.9053
Puni, A., Anlesinya, A., & Korsorku, P. D. A. (2018). Entrepreneurial education, self-efficacy and intentions in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 9(4), 492–511. https://doi.org/10.1108/ajems-09-2017-0211
Purwana, D., & Suhud, U. (2018). Investigating the effect of motivation on entrepreneurial intention: three different approaches. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 16(2), 200–208. https://doi.org/10.21511/ppm.16(2).2018.18
Riaheen Farzana. (2018). The Impact of Motivational Factors Towards Entrepreneurial Intention. Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, 14(12). https://doi.org/10.17265/1548-6583/2018.12.001
Richmell, Acheampong A., & Owusu k. E. (2017). An Exploratory Study Of Entrepreneurial Intention Among University Students In Ghana. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 7(1), 140–148.
Salami, S. O. (2017). Examining the emerging entrepreneurial mindset in adolescence: A study in Nigeria. International Journal of Psychology, 54(1), 70–79. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12431
Santos, S. C., & Liguori, E. W. (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior &Amp; Research, 26(3), 400–415. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijebr-07-2019-0436
Saptarshi Dhar, & Tahira Farzana. (2016). Entrepreneurs with Disabilities in Bangladesh: An Exploratory Study on Their Entrepreneurial Motivation and Challenges. European Journal of Business and Management, 9(36), 103–114.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2012). Qualitative research methods. Problem Solving in Organizations, 171–187. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139094351.015
Schindehutte, M., & Morris, M. H. (2016). The experiential learning portfolio and entrepreneurship education. Annals of Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy – 2016, 161–175. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781784719166.00015
Sorensen, J. B. (2007). Bureaucracy and Entrepreneurship: Workplace Effects on Entrepreneurial Entry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(3), 387–412. https://doi.org/10.2189/asqu.52.3.387
Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S., & Al-Laham, A. (2007). Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4), 566–591. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2006.05.002
Stephan, U., Hart, M., Mickiewicz, T., & Drews, C. C. (2015). Understanding motivations for entrepreneurship. Department for business innovation and skill: BIS RESEARCH PAPER NO. 212, 1- 109. Retrieved from www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/ Accessed on 12/11/2022.
von Graevenitz, G., Harhoff, D., & Weber, R. (2010). The effects of entrepreneurship education.Journal of Economic Behavior &Amp; Organization, 76(1), 90–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2010.02.015
Walter, S. G., & Dohse, D. (2012). Why mode and regional context matter for entrepreneurship education, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 24:9-10, 807-835, DOI: 10.1080/08985626.2012.721009
Witold Nowiński, Mohamed Yacine Haddoud, Drahoslav Lančarič, Dana Egerová & Csilla Czeglédi (2019) The impact of entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial selfefficacy and gender on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in the Visegrad countries, Studies in Higher Education, 44:2, 361-379, DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2017.1365359
Yosuf M., Sandu M. S., & Jain K. K. (2007) Relationship between Psychological Characteristics And Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Case Study Of Students At University Tun Abdul Razak (Unitar). Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability. http://www.asiaentrepreneurshipjournal.com/AJESIII2Yusof.pdf
Zakaria, H., Adam, H., & Abujaja, A. M. (2014). Assessment of agricultural students of university for development studies intention to take self-employment in agribusiness. International Journal of Information and Business Management, 21(1), 53–67.
Zovko, L., Bilić, I., & Dulčić, Ž. (2020). Determinants of students’ entrepreneurial intention: An empirical research. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues25(1), 25-44. https://doi.org/10.30924/mjcmi.25.1.2