A Comparative Study of Recruitment Industry in Japan, India, and Iran: A Growth Roadmap for the Iranian Recruitment Industry

Document Type : Case Study


1 Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Information Technology Group, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Counselling, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran


International Recruitment Industry has experienced significant growth in recent decades. This study investigates Recruitment Industry in three distinct national contexts in Asia. In comparison, as a developed country, Japan has the world's second-largest recruitment industry, India, as an emerging economy, has experienced dramatic growth in this industry over the last few decades. The emergent Recruitment Industry of Iran needs to study, analyze and exploit successful global experiences. This study includes history, structure, legal context, relevant institutions, and growth drivers of the recruitment industry of each country, providing a comparative study about recent developments of the Recruitment Industry and the increasing importance of recruitment agencies in three different social, economic and social contexts. It also contributes to filling the research gap of the recruitment industry in Iran. This study analyzes Iran's status in the international recruitment industry and offers recommendations to exploit the successful experiences of industry leaders to improve Iran's recruitment industry and labor market. 


Main Subjects

© Author(s), All Rights Reserved 

Agarwal, P. (2007). Higher Education and the Labor Market in India. 49-50.
Aravamudhan, N.R. (2007). Temping: Redefining the Indian Job Market. Business Week, 3746 (2007). 146 – 147
Ciett. (2012). The Agency World Industry Around the World. Brussels, Ciett. 4-5.
Ciett. (2016). Opening speech for the Ciett World Employment Conference. New Delhi.
Coe, D. T. (2009). Globalization and labor markets: implications of the emergence of China and India. Press & Communications CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland, 139.
Coe, N., Johns, J. and Ward, K. (2005). The top 20 global temporary staffing agencies: Changing firm geographies, Working Paper 4 School of Environment and Development, Manchester.
Coe, N., Johns, J. and Ward, K. (2008). Flexibility in action: the temporary staffing industry in the Czech Republic and Poland. Environment and Planning A, 40(6):1391 – 1415.
Coe, N. Jones, K. and Ward, K. (2010). The business of temporary staffing: a developing research agenda. Geography Compass, 4(8): 105-106.
Entrepreneurs Club. Recruitment History. Available at: http://www.kanoonkarafarin an.ir/page/860/تاریخچه-کاریابی. Published at: Unknown. Accessed at: Nov. 3, 2020.
Ernst & Young. (2012). Human resources solutions industry: Stepping into the next decade of growth. January 2012. Ernst & Young Pvt. Ltd.
1euroCiett. (2007). The contribution of private employment agencies to flexicurity and a better functioning labor market in Europe. euroCiett. 1-12.
Ferreira, J. (2016). The Changing Regulatory Mosaic of the Temporary Staffing Industry in Europe. Center for business Society. 12-14.
Gonos, G. (1997). The contest over 'employer status' in the post-war United States: the case of temporary help firms. Law and Society Review, 31(1). 81–110.
Harriss, J. (2010). Globalization (s) and labor in China and India: Introductory reflections. Global Labour Journal1(1). 3-11.
HR in Asia. (2016). Randstad Japan and Gigwalk Partner to Bring Innovative Mobile Solutions to Staffing Industry. Available at: http://www.hrinasia.com/recruitment/ randstad-japan-and-gigwalk-partner-to-bring-innovative-mobile-solutions-to-the-staffing-industry/ . Published at:May 27, 2016. Accessed at: Nov. 2, 2018.
Imai, J. And Shire, K. (2006). Employment Deregulation and the Expanding Market for Temporary Labour in Japan. The Changing Structure of Labour in Japan–Japanese Human Resource Management between Continuity and Innovation. Houndmills/Basingstoke. Palgrave. 113-129.
The Indian Express. (2016). Indian staffing industry expected to grow by 12% this year. Available at: https://indianexpress.com/article/jobs/indian-staffing-industry-expected-to-grow-by-12-this-year/. Published on: Dec. 4, 2016. Accessed at: Nov. 3, 2018.
Iran Official Gazette (2017). Iranian Official Gazette. The Sixth Development Plan. 1-2. Available at: http://www.rrk.ir/Files/Laws/قانون برنامه پنجساله ششم توسعه.pdf, Published at: April 10 2017. Accessed at: Nov. 2, 2018.
IBEF. (2018). Available at: https://www.ibef.org/industry/information-technology-india.aspx. Accessed at: Nov. 10, 2018.
JASSA. )2018a.( Establishment of the Worker Dispatching Act and major amendments. Available at: https://www.jassa.or.jp/english/law_system/index.html. Accessed on Oct. 25, 2018.
JASSA. (2018b). Labor Market / Temporary Agency Work Market, Available at: https://www.jassa.or.jp/english/labor_market/. Accessed on Oct. 25, 2018.
Johnson. (2012). QUIET GIANT: Post-recession, Japan's staffing market is ready for growth. Available at:
https://www2.staffingindustry.com/site/Publications/Staffing-Industry-Review/Archive/2012-Staffing-Industry-Review/June-2012/Quiet-Giant. Published onMay 23, 2012. Accessed onMay 15, 2018.
Kelly Services. (2018), Kelly Services Invests in Tempstaff Co. Ltd., Japan. Available at:http://ir.kellyservices.com/static-files/f72f2c3a-5999-4d75-b057-c21fd96aa91e. Published at: Feb 2018. Accessed at: Oct. 15, 2018.
Nikkei. (2018). Japan's Recruit employs AI to stop workers from quitting. Available at: https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Companies/Japan-s-Recruit-employs-AI-to-stop-workers-from-quitting. Published on Sep. 10, 2018. Accessed on Oct. 27, 2018.
OECD. (2018). OECD Employment Outlook 2018. OECD Publishing. Paris.
Oswal, N. (2018). The Latest Recruitment Technology Trends and How to Really Use Them. Available at: https://www.pcworld.idg.com.au/article/633219/latest-recruitment-technology-trends-how-really-use-them/. Published on Feb. 9, 2018. Accessed onMay 12, 2018.
Peck, J., Theodore, N. and Ward, K. (2004). Global push: constructing "emerging markets" in the temporary staffing industry. Global Networks, 5(1). 3-26.
Peck, J., Theodore, N., and Ward, K. (2005). Constructing markets for temporary labor: employment liberalization and the internationalization of the staffing industry. Global Networks5(1). 3-26.
Peck, J. and Theodore, N. (2007). Flexible recession: the temporary staffing industry and media work in the United States. Cambridge Journal of Economics 31(2). pp. 171-192.
PwC. (2017). M&A Integration: Choreographing great performance PwC's 2017, M&A Integration Survey Report
March 2017. PwC's Deals M&A Integration practice.
Randstad. (2016). Randstad to buy Careo Group in Japan., Available at: https://www.ir.randstad.com/news-and-events/newsroom/2016/2016-06-10. Published at: June 10 2016. Accessed at: Oct. 15 2020.
Reddy, Sumati.  (2006). Temping in India. In Prasad, B.V.S. & Sangeetha K. (ed.).Temping: An Introduction.   Hyderabad: ICFAI University Press. 82-83.
Reuters. (2017). Japan's Persol makes a $600 million bid for Australian recruiter Programmed Maintenance. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-programmed-main-m-a-persol-holdings-idUSKBN19Z014. Published at: July 4, 2017. Accessed at: Oct. 25, 2018.
Staffing Industry Analysts, Global Staffing Forecast, May 2017.
TBM Growth. (2018). Temporary Staffing Report. 38-60. https://www. tbmgrowth.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Temporary-Staffing-Report.pdf p.38-60
Ward, K. (2004) Going global? Internationalization and diversification in the temporary staffing industry. Journal of Economic Geography. 4(3). 251-273.
Watts, J. (2011). China and the Temporary Staffing Industry. GOTSU Working Brief 51. Available at: http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/geography/research/gotsu/ outputs/workingbriefs/download/gotsu_wb51%20.pdf
Watts, J. (2012). Geographies of Temporary Staffing and the Financial Crisis. Paper presented at the Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, New York. 24-28 February 2012.
World Economic Forum. (2017a). How India can prepare its workforce for the jobs of tomorrow. Available at:  https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/09/how-india-can-prepare-its-workforce-for-the-jobs-of-tomorrow/. Published on Sep. 28, 2017, and accessed on Nov. 11, 2018.
World Economic Forum. (2017b). Human Capital Report 2017.
WEC Global. (2017). World Employment Confederation Manifesto 2017: No Future Of Work Without Social Innovation!  How to build open, inclusive, sustainable, and enabling labor markets. 5-7.
WEC Global. (2018). WEC Global Economic Report: Enabling work, adaptation security & prosperity, 2018 edition, 4-8.
Woerzel, J. Madgavkar, M. and Gupta, S. (2017). India's Labour Market: A New Emphasis on Gainful Employment. McKinsey Global Institute 2017. June 2017. 2-3.
Workforce. (2012). Recruit Co. Lands Staffing Firm for $410 Million. Available at: https://www.workforce.com/2012/01/04/recruit-co-lands-staffing-firm-for-410-million/. Published at: Jan. 4, 2012. Accessed at: Sep. 29, 2018.
World Bank. (2006). Skill Development in India: The Vocational Education and Training System. January 2006.
World Bank. (2018). Iran Overview. Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/en/ country/iran/overview. Updated at: Oct. 11, 2018. Accessed at: Oct. 26, 2018.