Motivational Factors of Employees Job Satisfaction and Mediated Model of Happiness at Work: Evidence from the Telecom Sector of Pakistan

Document Type : Original Research


School of Management, Jiangsu, University, Zhenjiang, China


Exerting motivation towards employees in any workplace plays a vital role in securing organizational goals. Various motivational factors were apprised in business literature and came through knowledge. Among them, work environment, job security, job inspiration and happiness at work are critical when dealing with employees’ job satisfaction. To test the retrospective statement in a structural equation modeling, Pakistan's telecommunication sector aimedat 515 respondents answered. These respondents were given closed-ended questionnaires and emerged in longitudinal information (data) with a six-month lag time. Commonly, most of the time researchers are apprehended with biased problems when dealing with longitudinal data, but luckily, a six months gap is enough to avoid such biased mistakes. Toevaluate the validity and reliability of the respect constructs is nevertheless the partial least square (PLS-SEM). Toward the amazement of a reader, the performed work provides a direct relationship of the work environment, job security and job inspiration with happiness at work. In the same fashion, an indirect relationship is observed with employees’ job satisfaction when dealing with the same analysis. To avoid further complications, the study directly provides a solid path for executives to recognize and appreciate the pleasant work environment, job security, and job intensity to maintain a successful business. It is the sole discretion to implement such policies by business experts, directors, and entrepreneurs in their respective organizations to maintain and achieve their goals for both short and long-term purposes.


Main Subjects

Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan, Ling, Ying-Leh, & Ping, Chen Siew. (2017). Workplace Happiness, Transformational Leadership and Affective Commitment. Advanced Science Letters, 23(4), 2872-2875.
Agbozo, George Kafui, Owusu, Isaac Sakyi, Hoedoafia, Mabel A, & Atakorah, Yaw Boateng. (2017). The effect of work environment on job satisfaction: Evidence from the banking sector in Ghana. Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(1), 12-18.
Aguenza, Benjamin Balbuena, & Som, Ahmad Puad Mat. (2018). Motivational factors of employee retention and engagement in organizations. IJAME.
Al‐Hamdan, Zaid, Manojlovich, Milisa, & Tanima, Banerjee. (2017). Jordanian nursing work environments, intent to stay, and job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49(1), 103-110.
Alexander, Jeffrey A, Bloom, Joan R, & Nuchols, Beverly A. (1994). Nursing turnover and hospital efficiency: an organization‐level analysis. Industrial relations: a journal of economy and society, 33(4), 505-520.
Aliekperova, Nataliia. (2018). Motivating factors effecting work efficiency of employees in Ukrainian pharmaceutical sector. Economics and Sociology, 11(1), 61-74.
Amin, Ruhul. (2016). Job Satisfaction of Low-skilled Employees of Manufacturing Industry in Bangladesh: A Case Study. Journal of Investment and Management, 5(6), 166-170.
Bagozzi, Richard P, & Yi, Youjae. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 16(1), 74-94.
Blom, Victoria, Richter, Anne, Hallsten, Lennart, & Svedberg, Pia. (2018). The associations between job insecurity, depressive symptoms and burnout: The role of performance-based self-esteem. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 39(1), 48-63.
Bowers, Jessica M. (2019). Behavioral and Molecular Analysis of Memory in the Dwarf Cuttlefish.
Branham, Leigh. (2012). The 7 hidden reasons employees leave: How to recognize the subtle signs and act before it's too late: Amacom.
Brief, Arthur P. (1998). Attitudes in and around organizations (Vol. 9): Sage.
Buhai, S, Cottini, E, & Nielseny, N. . (2008). The impact of Workplace Conditions on Firm Performance.  (Working Paper Number 08-13).
Burke, Ronald J. (1998). Correlates of job insecurity among recent business school graduates. Employee Relations, 20(1), 92-98.
Burke, Ronald J. (2003). Nursing staff attitudes following restructuring: the role of perceived organizational support, restructuring processes and stressors. International journal of sociology and social policy.
Burke, Ronald J, & Greenglass, Esther R. (2001). Hospital restructuring and nursing staff well-being: The role of perceived hospital and union support. Anxiety, stress and coping, 14(1), 93-115.
Candan, Hakan. (2013). A research towards determination of job satisfaction level of public employee: karaman governorship sample. Journal of human Resource Management, 1(2), 29-38.
Cano, Jamie, & Castillo, JX. (2004). Factors explaining job satisfaction among faculty. Journal of Agricultural education, 45(3), 65-74.
Cappelli, Peter. (1992). Examining managerial displacement. Academy of Management Journal, 35(1), 203-217.
Chadborn, Daniel, & Reysen, Stephen. (2018). Moved by the masses: A social identity perspective on inspiration. Current Psychology, 37(3), 625-631.
Chaiprasit, Kemakorn, & Santidhiraku, Orapin. (2011). Happiness at work of employees in small and medium-sized enterprises, Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 25, 189-200.
Chandrasekar, Karim. (2011). Workplace environment and its impact on organisational performance in public sector organisations. International journal of enterprise computing and business systems, 1(1), 1-19.
Chin, Wynne W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern methods for business research, 295(2), 295-336.
Chou, Pin-Fenn, Lu, Chin-Shan, & Chang, Yu-Hern. (2014). Effects of service quality and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty in high-speed rail services in Taiwan. Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, 10(10), 917-945.
Cortina, Jose M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of applied psychology, 78(1), 98.
Dartey-Baah, Kwasi, & Amoako, George Kofi. (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: a Ghanaian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management, 3(9), 1-8.
Darvishmotevali, Mahlagha, Arasli, Huseyin, & Kilic, Hasan. (2017). Effect of job insecurity on frontline employee’s performance: Looking through the lens of psychological strains and leverages. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(6), 1724-1744.
De Neve, Jan‐Emmanuel, & Ward, George. (2017). Happiness at work. Saïd Business School WP, 7.
Delery, John E, & Doty, D Harold. (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of management Journal, 39(4), 802-835.
Diener, Ed. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American psychologist, 55(1), 34.
Diener, Ed, & Diener, Carol. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological science, 7(3), 181-185.
Diener, Ed, Suh, Eunkook M, Lucas, Richard E, & Smith, Heidi L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological bulletin, 125(2), 276.
Elliot, Andrew J, & Church, Marcy A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 72(1), 218.
Erro-Garcés, Amaya, & Ferreira, Susana. (2019). Do better workplace environmental conditions improve job satisfaction? Journal of Cleaner Production, 219, 936-948.
Evans, Chester Eugene, & La Verne, N Laseau. (1950). My job contest: Personnel Psychology.
Fisher, C. D. . (2010). Happiness at work. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12, 384-412. doi:
Fisher, C.D. (2010). Happiness at Workijmr. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12, 384–412.
Fornell, C, & Larcker, D. F. . (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Gazioglu, Saziye, & Tansel, Aysit. (2006). Job satisfaction in Britain: individual and job related factors. Applied economics, 38(10), 1163-1171.
Getz, Donald, & Brown, Graham. (2006). Critical success factors for wine tourism regions: a demand analysis. Tourism management, 27(1), 146-158.
Guarnaccia, Cinzia, Scrima, Fabrizio, Civilleri, Alba, & Salerno, Laura. (2018). The role of occupational self-efficacy in mediating the effect of job insecurity on work engagement, satisfaction and general health. Current Psychology, 37(3), 488-497.
Hair, J, Black, W, Babin, B, & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th ed.: Prentice Hall,Upper Saddle River,NJ.
Hair, J, M, Ringle C., & Sarstedt, M. . (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed, a Silver Bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–151.
Hair, Joe F, Sarstedt, Marko, Ringle, Christian M, & Mena, Jeannette A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 40(3), 414-433.
Han, Heesup. (2013). The healthcare hotel: Distinctive attributes for international medical travelers. Tourism Management, 36, 257-268.
Henseler, J, & Ringle, C. (2009). The Use of Partial Least Squares Path Modeling in lnternational Marketing. ln: New Challenges to lnternational Marketing, Sinkovics, RR. and PN Ghauri.
Herzberg, F Mausner, & Mausner, Bernard. (1959). B. and Snyderman, BB (1959) The motivation to work. Aufl., NewYork-London.
Hewagama, Gayani, Boxall, Peter, Cheung, Gordon, & Hutchison, Ann. (2019). Service recovery through empowerment? HRM, employee performance and job satisfaction in hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 81, 73-82.
Hinton, Perry R. (2014). Statistics explained: Routledge.
Hinton, PR, Brownlow, C, McMurray, I, & Cozens, B. (2004). Using SPSS to analyse questionnaires: Reliability. SPSS explained, 356-366.
Hoppock, Robert. (1935). Job satisfaction.
Hrnjic, Anes, Pilav-Velic, Amila, Djidelija, Irma, & Jahic, Hatidza. (2018). Innovative Behavior and Employee Job Satisfaction in Telecommunications Sector. Economic Review: Journal of Economics and Business, 16(1), 19-30.
Hur, Hyunkang, & Perry, James L. (2016). Evidence-Based Change in Public Job Security Policy: A Research Synthesis and Its Practical Implications. Public personnel management, 45(3), 264-283.
Jandaghi, G, Ali Mokhles, A, & Bahrami, H. (2011). The impact of job security on employees’ commitment and job satisfaction in Qom municipalities. African Journal of Business Management, 5(16), 6853-6858.
Januwarsono, S. (2015). Analytical of Factors Determinants of Happiness at Work  Case Study on PT. PLN (Persero) Region Suluttenggo, Sulawesi, Indonesia. European Journal of Business and Management, 7(8), 9-17.
Jill, TD. (1980). Human and organizational costs of budget cutbacks in state hospitals. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, Canada.
Kaye, Beverly, & Jordan-Evans, Sharon. (2000). Retention: Tag, you're it! Training and development-Alexandria-American society for training and development, 54(4), 29-39.
Kesebir, Pelin, & Diener, Ed. (2009). In pursuit of happiness: Empirical answers to philosophical questions The science of well-being (pp. 59-74): Springer.
Kiyani, Asif Ayub, Ayupp, Kartinah, & Rasool, Shahid. (2018). CONSTRUCT VALIDATION OF JOB CHARACTERISTICS IN AN ASIAN CONTEXT: AN EVIDENCE AMONG ACADEMICIANS IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN PAKISTAN. International Journal of Business and Society, 19(3), 816-832.
Knardahl, Stein, Johannessen, Håkon A, Sterud, Tom, Härmä, Mikko, Rugulies, Reiner, Seitsamo, Jorma, & Borg, Vilhelm. (2017). The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement: a systematic review with meta-analyses. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 176.
Labov, B. (1997). Inspiring employees the easy way. Incentive, 171(10), 114-118.
Lahey, MA. (1984). Job Security: Its meaning and measure (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Kansas State University, Kansas.
Maslach, Christina, Schaufeli, Wilmar B, & Leiter, Michael P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 397-422.
Maurya, V.N, Jaggi, C.K, Singh, B, Arneja, C.S, Maurya, A.K, & Arora, D.K. (2015). Empirical analysis of work life balance policies and its impact on employee’s job satisfaction and performance: Descriptive statistical approach. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 4(2-1), 33-43.
Nasurdin, Aizzat Mohd, Ling, Tan Cheng, & Khan, Sabrina Naseer. (2018). LINKING SOCIAL SUPPORT, WORK ENGAGEMENT AND JOB PERFORMANCE IN NURSING. International Journal of Business & Society, 19(2).
Nunnally, Jum C. (1978). Psychometric Theory: 2d Ed: McGraw-Hill.
Ogonda, Fredrick Omondi, Orwa, Bula Hannah, Peter, Wambua Philip, & Jedida, Muli Vika. (2015). An analysis of work motivation and teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda Sub-County, Kenya. Journal of Investment and Management, 4(6), 377-390.
Oleynick, Victoria C, Thrash, Todd M, LeFew, Michael C, Moldovan, Emil G, & Kieffaber, Paul D. (2014). The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: challenges and opportunities. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8, 436.
Ottman, Jacquelyn. (2017). The new rules of green marketing: Strategies, tools, and inspiration for sustainable branding: Routledge.
Pawirosumarto, Suharno, Sarjana, Purwanto Katijan, & Gunawan, Rachmad. (2017). The effect of work environment, leadership style, and organizational culture towards job satisfaction and its implication towards employee performance in Parador Hotels and Resorts, Indonesia. International Journal of Law and Management, 59(6), 1337-1358.
Petterson, Inga-Lill, & Arnetz, Bengt B. (1998). Psychosocial stressors and well-being in health care workers. The impact of an intervention program. Social Science & Medicine, 47(11), 1763-1772.
Qubaisi, Hamda Sanad AL. (2017). Happiness affecting the workplace environment and employees wellbeing. Paper presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference.
Qureshi, Imran, Jamil, Raja, Iftikhar, Mehwish, Arif, Sadia, Lodhi, Saeed, Naseem, Imran, & Zaman, Khalid. (2012). Job stress, workload, environment and employees turnover intentions: Destiny or choice. Archives of Sciences (Sciences Des Archives), 65(8).
Raziq, A, & Maulabakhsh, R. (2015, 30-31 October 2014). Impact of Working Environment on Job Satisfaction. Paper presented at the 2nd Global Conference on Business, Economics, Management and Tourism, Prague, Czech Republic.
Reisel, W.D, Probst, T.M, Chia, S.L, Maloles, C.M, & König, C.J. (2010). The Effects of Job Insecurity on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship. Zurich Open Repository and Archive, 1-30.
Rude, Wally. (2004). The connection between servant leadership and job burnout. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Trinity Western University, School of Leadership Studies.
Ryan, Richard M, & Deci, Edward L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 141-166.
Ryff, Carol D, & Singer, Burton H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of happiness studies, 9(1), 13-39.
Salas-Vallina, Andres, & Fernandez, Rafael. (2017). The HRM-performance relationship revisited: Inspirational motivation, participative decision making and happiness at work (HAW). Employee Relations, 39(5), 626-642.
Salas-Vallina, Andrés, Simone, Cristina, & Fernández-Guerrero, Rafael. (2018). The human side of leadership: Inspirational leadership effects on follower characteristics and happiness at work (HAW). Journal of Business Research.
Satuf, Cibele, Monteiro, Samuel, Pereira, Henrique, Esgalhado, Graça, Marina Afonso, Rosa, & Loureiro, Manuel. (2018). The protective effect of job satisfaction in health, happiness, well-being and self-esteem. International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics, 24(2), 181-189.
Schimmack, Ulrich. (2008). The structure of subjective well-being. The science of subjective well-being, 97-123.
Seddon, John. (2019). Freedom from command and control: Rethinking management for lean service: Productivity Press.
Sell, Lea, & Cleal, Bryan. (2011). Job satisfaction, work environment, and rewards: Motivational theory revisited. Labour, 25(1), 1-23.
Shaw, Jason D, Delery, John E, Jenkins Jr, G Douglas, & Gupta, Nina. (1998). An organization-level analysis of voluntary and involuntary turnover. Academy of management journal, 41(5), 511-525.
Shoss, Mindy K, Jiang, Lixin, & Probst, Tahira M. (2018). Bending without breaking: A two-study examination of employee resilience in the face of job insecurity. Journal of occupational health psychology, 23(1), 112.
Shury, Jan, & Ltd, IFF Research. (2017). Employer Perspectives Survey 2016: Department for Education.
Skalli, Ali, Theodossiou, Ioannis, & Vasileiou, Efi. (2008). Jobs as Lancaster goods: Facets of job satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(5), 1906-1920.
Spector, Paul E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the job satisfaction survey. American journal of community psychology, 13(6), 693-713.
Spector, Paul E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences (Vol. 3): Sage publications.
Teng, Michael, Hassan, Zaiton, Kasa, Mark, Bandar, Nur Fatihah Abdullah, Ahmad, Rusli, & Nor, Nik Norsyamimi Md. (2017). The Relationship Between Workload And Students'disruptive Behaviours with Turnover Intention Among Academicians of Private Higher Education Institutions: Boredom at Workplace as Mediator. International Journal of Business and Society, 18(S4), 828-837.
Thatcher, Jason Bennett, Liu, Yongmei, & Stepina, Lee P. (2002). The role of the work itself: an empirical examination of intrinsic motivation's influence on IT workers attitudes and intentions. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2002 ACM SIGCPR conference on Computer personnel research.
Thrash, Todd M, & Elliot, Andrew J. (2003). Inspiration as a psychological construct. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(4), 871.
Thrash, Todd M, Moldovan, Emil G, Oleynick, Victoria C, & Maruskin, Laura A. (2014). The psychology of inspiration. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(9), 495-510.
Usakli, Ahmet, & Baloglu, Seyhmus. (2011). Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory. Tourism management, 32(1), 114-127.
Vroom, Victor Harold. (1964). Work and motivation (Vol. 54): Wiley New York.
Wang, H.J, Lu, C.Q, & Siu, Q.L. (2015). When Does Job Security Affect Job Performance? Journal of Applied Psychology
Wen, Xiaowei, Gu, Liting, & Wen, Simei. (2019). Job satisfaction and job engagement: Empirical evidence from food safety regulators in Guangdong, China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 208, 999-1008.
Yousef, Darwish A. (2000). Organizational commitment: a mediator of the relationships of leadership behavior with job satisfaction and performance in a non‐western country. Journal of managerial Psychology.