Document Type : Conceptual Paper


1 MA Public Administration, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, University of Tehran, Iran

3 MA Student in Public Administration, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Iran


During human history, spirituality is crystallized in different ways and there are many discussions about it. Today, one issue respected by behavior and psychology scholars is spiritual intelligence. It is highly respected not only in individual but also in organizational areas while in addition to psychological fields; it is entered into other human science areas including management. In present paper, different definitions are provided on spiritual intelligence and then its components and aspects are studied in the perspective of different practitioners and finally the ways to promote, grow and enhance spiritual intelligence are pointed out. Author’s broad investigations indicate that there is no consensus on the aspects and components of spiritual intelligence and he believes that such heterogeneity is due to different definitions by connoisseurs on spirituality and their different values and cultures.


Amram, J. (2005). Intelligence Beyond IQ: The contribution of emotional and spiritual intelligences to effective business leadership, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology.
Amram, Y. (2009). “The Contribution of Emotional and Spiritual Intelligences To Effective Business Leadership”. Doctoral Dissertation, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, California, Palo Alto
Bakhtiari, H. (2009). "Evaluation of the Impact of Spirituality on empowering managers", Journal of Human Sciences, University of Imam Hussain (as) - Islamic Management eighteenth year, No. 81, pp. 150-130.
Cavanagh, G. F. (1999). “Spirituality for managers: context and critique. Journal of Organizational Change Management” .vol.12, No.3, pp.186-199.
Emmons, R. A. (2000). Is spirituality intelligence? Motivation, cognition, and the psychology of ultimate concern. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(1), 3-26.
Gobaribonab & et al. (2007). ”Spiritual intelligence”. Journal – Research modern religious thought, Year III, No. I, pp 147-125
Kadkhoda. M., Jahanic. H. (2012). “Problem-solving capacities of spiritual intelligence for artificial intelligence “,Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 , 170 – 175 .
Litchfield, B. (1999). Spiritual intelligence; Illini Christian faculty and staff. www.
Mc Cormick, D. W. (1994). “Spirituality and Management”, Journal of Managerial Psychology,  Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 5-8
Mc Knignt, R. (1987). “Spirituality in the Workplace”, in Adams, J. D. (ed.), Transforming Work, Milles River Press, Alexandria, VA. Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 23-45
McMullen, B. (2003). Spiritual intelligence; www.
Nazel, D. D. (2004). Spiritual Orientation in Relation to Spiritual Intelligence: A consideration of traditional Christianity and New Age/individualistic spirituality; Unpublished thesis. Australia: The University of South Australia.
Noble, K. D. (2000), “Spiritual intelligence: A new frame of mind”, Advanced Development Journal, 9:1-28
Santos, E. S. (2006). “Spiritual intelligence; What is spiritual intelligence? How it benefits a person?” www. Skopun. Files.
Selman, L, Harding, R and Speck, P. (2011). “The Measurement of Spirituality in Palliative Care and the Content of Tools Validated Cross-Culturally: A Systematic Review”, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol.41, No.4, pp.728-753.
Sisk, D. (2008). “Engaging the Spiritual Intelligence of Gifted Students to Build Global Awareness”. Roeper Review, 30(1), 24- 30.
Smith, S. (2004), "Smith, Exploring the interaction of emotional Intelligence and spirituality", Traumatology 10 (4), pp.231-243.
Sohrabi F. (2007). "Principles of Spiritual Intelligence", Journal of Mental Health, No. 1, pp. 14-18
Vaughan, F. (2003). “What is spiritual intelligence?”, Journal of humanistic psychology. 42, (2).
Wigglesworth. C. (2002). “Spiritual Intelligence & Leadership”, Conscious Pursuits. pp1-3
Zarei Matin, H.; Kheirandish, M.; Jahani, H. (2010). "Identifying and Assessing the components of spiritual intelligence in the workplace; Labbafinejad Hospital Case Study on Tehran", Public Administration Studies, No. XII, pp. 74-91