This research investigates the behavior of the managers of the Bangladeshi firms in applying Earnings manipulation through the technique of Accruals Earnings Management (AEM). This study examines whether the firm managers of Bangladesh involve themselves in earnings manipulation in the form of accruals earnings management that whether they beat of meat the earnings benchmarks in the context of Return on Assets, Changes in Return on Assets, Earnings per Shares and Changes in Earnings per Shares. The modified Cross Sectional Jones (1991) model has been applied to estimate the proxy for accruals earnings management (Abnormal Accruals) by using a 1652 firm-years observations of 168 companies of 10 industries (excluding Banking Industry, Financial Institutions, Insurance Industries and Telecommunication industries) over the 15 years from 2002 to 2016. Managers of other variables of accruals earnings management activities, this research reports that there is no evidence of earnings manipulation in the form of accruals earnings management from the evidence from Bangladeshi firms.
This study examines the determinants of capital structure and performance in the listed companies of Tehran Stock Exchange. Information of the financial statements of the sample companies were extracted using Rahavardnovin Software. Statistical population included listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange since 2012-2017 from which 123 companies were selected as the sample. The model of the study was estimated using least squares method. Based on the results, the effect of company size, financial leverage, and advertisement cost on the performance was found to be significant. Also, the effect of company size, company age, sale volume, and total earnings on the capital structure was significant. In conclusion, some suggestions were offered.
This study attempted to examine the effects of performance appraisal on employees moral and satisfaction in Jinka town civil service office. The specific objectives of the study were to point out the current performance of employees, performance appraisal problems and to examine the effects of performance standards contribute to shape employees moral and satisfaction. Data for this study were collected from sample employees. So, from the total of 76 employees the researcher was used 39 (56%) through simple random sampling techniques. The study employed quantitative data like questionnaire as it is the major source of information even through there were some qualitative data obtained from sample employees. The result of the study revealed that evaluating employee’s by their past contribution affects employees moral and satisfaction negatively and also pay cut is not the measure to improve performance since it demoralize employees moral and satisfaction. The study also indicated that team appraisal system affect employee’s moral and satisfaction negatively. Generally, the research recommended that, employees must be evaluated by current performance and pay cut is not advisable for this organization since the majority of respondents were strongly disagree.
Today’s competitive world has transformed the role of consumers in organizations, as consumers are present in all processes, from production phases to the delivery of products. Thus, the universities researchers’ and traders’ attention have shifted towards the consumers’ mental image of the brands to the extent that they have included allocated sections in their mission statements and company objectives to the consumers’ mental image. The present article attempts to study the effect of the Shampoo Brand’s mental image on the perceptual values of the consumers. In this perspective, the present research is applied and is descriptive. The purchase process and preserving the health of hair, scalp and reducing hair loss and the most important of all, maintaining the beauty of appearance is of outmost importance for women; choosing the right shampoo is always their crucial concerns specifically in Islamic societies like Iran where the hair is covered throughout the day and the absence of breathing scalp gets highlighted. Thus, participants include the Alzahra female students shampoo consumers who has responded to the questionnaire as the main research tool. The analysis using SPSS and LISREL proved research hypothesis. That is, the mental image of brand is positively related to perceived quality and price/cost of the products. Considering that perceived quality and price the elements of perceived value, results confirm such relationship in Alzahra University as the only Iranian women university.
To expand the financial literature and also in view of the necessity of updating in today's knowledge of the world, this research examines one of the most recent issues of financial management, means science of behavioural finance that is dedicated to the behavioral character of the capital market and the study of the behavioral and psychological aspects of the capital market. In this field, one of the interesting topics is the calendar effects that deal with the anomalies in behavior and performance of market in different times of day, week, month and year. The problem that follows in this study is to investigate the relationship between weekdays, including the categories of periodic or calendar effects, on stock returns, and claims that there are heterogeneous returns on different days of the week, at that time, it would be possible to generate extra returns by formulating strategies for these daily patterns. To achieve this goal, five hypotheses have been formulated and 160 companies were selected from listed companies in the Tehran Stock Exchange for a period of 5 years, 2012 to 2016. The method of this research is applied and descriptive-correlational. To test the hypotheses, linear regression model and panel data are used. The results of testing the hypotheses show that there is a significant relationship between calendar events and stock returns and the effect of Tuesday has been significant in estimations.
International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics (IJMAE) is an electronic independent international scientific and academic journal aims to publish scholars’ original and high quality manuscripts and reports in all fields of business.