The aim of this study is to examine the current waqf reporting practices in selected waqf institution in Malaysia. For this, the study employs a case study method to analyze intervention of life events which is the waqf reporting practices itself. A focus group discussion method was adopted to collect data from the respondents. For reporting purposes, this study adopted a single-case study method. Findings are analyzed and discussed are been made on current waqf reporting practices under three aspects: (i) waqf governance reporting practices; (ii) waqf performance reporting practices; and (iii) waqf socio-economic impact reporting practices. Based on results, the study highlights a number of good waqf reporting practices by selected waqf institution in Malaysia. However, this study also identified several waqf reporting weaknesses that led for a room of improvement in the future. For that, recommendations to overcome such waqf reporting weaknesses on governance, performance and socio-economic impact aspects are being made based on the findings.
Earnings management (EM) is the choice of accounting policy by a manager to achieve multiple goals. EM activity can be divided into two types: accrual manipulation activity and real manipulation activity. However, both of these have a major difference: the accrual manipulation does not affect cash flow, whereas real manipulation affects cash flow. Whether misleading or not to the users of financial statements, good or bad for the practice, controversy arises when earnings management is associated with morals / ethics. EM practices are suspected to arise due to agency problems arising from a conflict of interest between the principal and the agent. In accordance with agency theory, the function of the independent auditor can reduce agency problems. A qualified auditor, trusted to provide trust to stakeholders about the performance of management. High-quality auditors are more likely to detect dubious accounting practices. Thus, in the context of research, audit quality is often regarded as an antecedent variable and a variable that can reduce the occurrence of EM practice. Furthermore, the practice of Accrual Earnings Management (AEM) and Real Earnings Management (REM) in some empirical results turns out to be a substitution.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of company profitability on the relationship between physical asset management and profit sharing strategy. The net physical assets and the ratio of physical assets as asset management indicators and net profit margin is the profitability index of the company. In this research, financial information of 165 companies from the set of companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange for the period 2013 to 2017 was used. The hypothesis test was performed using multiple linear regression model. Eviews software was used for this purpose. The results show that the company's profitability has a positive effect on the relationship between physical asset management and profit sharing strategy; therefore, the management of physical assets enables the organization to increase its value through the optimal utilization of all available resources and provide the basis for maximizing profits and returns to investors.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between transfer pricing and tax liability in Kenya’s cement industry. The dependent variable of tax liability was examined against independent sub-variables namely; business models, thin capitalization, tax haven utilization and intra-company payments. Using longitudinal research design, the study examined relationships between the independent and dependent variables tracked over a 10 year period starting 2005. Out of the 6 companies in the industry, the study targeted 3 companies using purposive sampling on the basis of availability of annual financial statements and affiliation to a multinational company. Quantitative data collected for this study was analyzed by both descriptive and inferential. Data presentation was then done using tables, charts and graphs. Content analysis was used for qualitative data and presentation done in prose form. Correlation and univariate linear regression analysis was done to establish existing relationships between the dependent variable and independent variables of interest. It was concluded that tax paid over the 10-year period had not been affected by business models in existence; thin capitalization practices; tax haven utilization and intracompany payments. This study therefore recommends that the tax authorities should channel resources towards studying and assessing other forms of transfer pricing abuse likely to yield better tax results than the four variables studied herein.
Financial management policies are used by organizations as tools for ensuring that their finances are managed in proper manner in all areas of their operations. Lack of implementation of proper management policy exposes NGOs to threats like loss of assets, production of financial reports which are incorrect and unreliable for decision making purposes. This may also lead to application of accounting policies by an organization which are not consistent with the applicable governing laws and regulations. However NGOs that have implemented proper financial management policies are generally known to record improved financial performance. Therefore, the overall objective of this study was to establish the effect of financial planning on financial performance of Non – Governmental Organizations in Nairobi County. The study adopted a descriptive research design. A sample of 45 NGOs was selected from a population of 1,775 NGOs in Nairobi County both local and international. Data was obtained through the use of questionnaires and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Multiple regression analysis results showed that financial planning affects an organization financial performance. The study found out that financial planning has a great effect on financial performance of NGOs hence an important variable that the management of NGOs should not ignore in order to improve on their financial performance. A feedback system should be put in place ensuring corrective measures are taken to enable organizations respond urgently to emerging risks.
International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics (IJMAE) is an electronic independent international scientific and academic journal aims to publish scholars’ original and high quality manuscripts and reports in all fields of business.