The General Review of the Leader’s Self Enhancement on the Organization

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Center for Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) Programs, HELP College of Art and Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2 Center of Southern New Hampshire (SNHU Program), HELP College of Arts and Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract

One of the self-evaluating motives is that of self enhancement and it is a focus on making oneself happy and to maintain personal self-esteem. Leaders with a self enhancement bias are linked to low interpersonal relationships and low performance. People do not like to work with self-enhancers because they come across as egotistical, hostile, insensitive and lacking empathy; this result in poor relationships which then leads to poor performance. However, the self-enhancing leader could also help to encourage the growth of an organization. This research reviews the several effects of self enhancement on leaders. In conclusion, self-enhancing leaders who focus on self enhancement could be effective leaders if applied in the right situation.

Keywords


Ames, D., Anderson, C., & Gosling, S. (2008). Punishing hubris: The perils of overestimating one’s status in a group. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(1), 90-101.doi:10.1177/0146167207307489.
Beersma, B., Hoogh, A.H. B. D., Mcolwain, D., Nevicka, B., & Vianen, A.E. M. V. (2011). All I need is a stage to shine: Narcissists’ leader emergence and performance. The leadership quaterly, 22, 910-925.
Benotsch, B. G., Bogart, L. M., & Pavlovic, J. L. (2004). Feeling superior but threatened: The relation of narcissism to social comparison. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 26, 35-44.
Campbell, S. M., Campbell, W. K., Hoffman, B. J., & Marchisio, G. (2011).Narcissism in organizational contexts. Human Resource Management Review, 268–284.
Campbell, W. K., & Foster, J. D. (2007). The narcissistic self: Background, an extended agency model, and ongoing controversies. New York: Psychology Press.
Chabris, C. F., Hashmi, N., Malone, T. W., Pentland, A., & Woolley, A. W. (2010). Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups. Science, 330, 686–688.
De Dreu, C. K. W., Nijstad, B. A., & van Knippenberg, D. (2008). Motivated information processing in group judgment and decision making. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12, 22–49.
Elsbach, K. D., & Kramer, R. M. (2009). Assessing creativity in Hollywood pitch meetings: Evidence for a dual process model of creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 283-301.
Flynn, F. J., Goncalo, J. A., & Kim, S. H. (2010). Are two narcissists better than one? The link between narcissism, perceived creativity and creative performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36 (11), 1484-1495.
Fong, C. F., & Pfeffer, J. (2007). Building organization theory from first principles: The self-enhancement motive and understanding power and influence. Organizational Science. 16 (4). 372-449. doi: 10.1287/1050.0123
Hieder, F. (2008). The Psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
Hoogh, A. H. B. D., Nevicka, B., Velden, F. S. T., & Vianen, A. E.M. V. V. (2011). Reality at odds with perceptions: narcissistic leaders and group performance. Psychological Science, 22 (10), 1259-1264.
Hoogh, A. H. B. D., Nevicka, B., Velden, F. S. T., & Vianen, A. E.M. V. V. (2013). Uncertainty enhances the preference for narcissistic leaders. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43. 370-380. doi: 10.1002/ejso.1943
Hoyt, C. L., Reid, L., & Simon, S. (2009). Choosing the best (wo)man for the job: The effects of mortality salience, sex, and gender stereotypes on leader evaluations. The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 233–246.
Kam, N. A. D. (2012). Leader Self-Enhancement. The Netherlands: University of Groningen.
Kunda, Z. (2009). The case for motivated reasoning. Psych.Bull. 480-498.
Liberman, L. (2012). The impact of a Paternalistic Style of Management and Delegation of Authority on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Chile and the US. Innovar, 24(53), 187-196.
Leikas, S., Lonqvist, J. E., Paunonen, S. V., & Verkasalo, M. (2008). Does Self-Enhancement have implications for adjustment? Basic and applied social psychology. 377 (30). 377-386. doi: 10.1080/01973530802502374
Mcleod, L. E. (2011). Self-Enhancing Bias: Why So Many People Won't Acknowledge External Factors in Their Success. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/lisa-earle-mcleod/self-enhancing-bias_b_856686.html
Miller, D. T., & Ross, M. (2007). Self-serving biases in the attribution of casualty: Fact or fiction? Psych Bull. 82, 213-225.
Mustamil, N. M., & Yazdi, A. M. T. (2014). Do narcissist and high Machs more empowered? Accessing the relationship between Machiavellianism and narcissism and psychological empowerrnment. International Journal of Business and Management. 9(7). doi: 10.5539/ijbm.v9n7p78.
Pullen, A., & Rhodes, C. (2008). ‘It’s All About Me!’ Gendered Narcissism and Leaders’ Identity Work. Leadership, 4(1). doi: 10,1177/1742715007085767.
Sankowsky, D. (n.d.) The Charismatic leader as narcissist: Understanding the abuse of power.
Stein, M. (2013). When does narcissistic leadership become problematic? Journal of Management Inquiry, 22(3), 282-293. Doi: 10.1177/1056492613478664.
The Self-Enhancement Bias. (2015). Retrieved from https://www.availleadership .com/the-self-enhancement-bias/
Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in Organizations. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.