Perceived Organizational Support, Knowledge Creation, Knowledge Transfer, and Learning Performance: An Empirical Study of Higher Education Institutions in Siem Reap, Cambodia

Document Type: Original Research


1 Faculty of Tourism, University of South-East Asia (USEA), Cambodia

2 Faculty of Arts, Humanities, and Languages, University of South-East Asia (USEA), Cambodia

3 Faculty of Economics and Business, University of South-East Asia (USEA), Cambodia


The study investigated the structural relationships among perceived organizational support, knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, and students’ learning performance in Higher Education Institutions and then extended the mediating effect of knowledge creation to explain the relationship between perceived organizational support and knowledge transfer. Knowledge transfer served as mediator between knowledge creation, perceived organizational support, and students’ learning performance. The target samples were drawn from six Higher Education Institutions in Siem Reap, Cambodia. A total of 763 respondents were used as the research sample. Structural equation modeling and Sobel’s were employed to test the proposed research framework. The results indicated that all the direct path relationships among the research variables were statistically significant. Knowledge creation and knowledge transfer, moreover, were confirmed as mediation the relationship among research constructs. Direct effect of knowledge creation was positively significant to students’ learning performance, whereas expected perceived organizational support was not found to directly effects on students’ learning performance. The findings of this study are used to fulfill the gap of literature and empirical study.


Ahmad, M., Bakar, J. A. A., Yahya, N. I., Yusof, N., & Zulkifli, A. N. (2011). Effect of demographic factors on knowledge creation processes in learning management system among postgraduate students. Paper presented at the Open systems (ICOS), 2011 IEEE conference on.
Allred, B. B. (2001). Enabling knowledge creation: How to unlock the mystery of tacit knowledge and release the power of innovation. The Academy of management executive, 15(1), 161-162.
Anatan, L. (2013). A proposed framework of university to industry knowledge transfer. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 2(2), 304-325.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological bulletin, 103(3), 411.
Argote, L., & Ingram, P. (2000). Knowledge transfer: A basis for competitive advantage in firms Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82(1), 150-169. doi: 10.1006/obhd.2000.2893
Bae, S. H., Song, J. H., & Kim, H. K. (2012). Teachers’ creativity in career technical education: The mediating effect of knowledge creation practices in the learning organization. The Korean Social Science Journal, 39(1), 59-81.
Bae, S. H., Song, J. H., Park, S., & Kim, H. K. (2013). Influential factors for teachers' creativity: Mutual impacts of leadership, work engagement, and knowledge creation practices. Perf. Improvement Qrtly, 26(3), 33-58. doi: 10.1002/piq.21153
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (2012). Specification, evaluation, and interpretation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 40(1), 8-34.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173.
Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. Handbook of cross-cultural psychology, 2(2), 349-444.
Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern methods for business research, 295(2), 295-336.
Cook, S. D. N., & Brown, J. S. (1999). Bridging epistemologies: The generative dance between organizational knowledge and organizational knowing. Organization science, 10(4), 381-400.
Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2014). Business Research Methods (12 ed.). New York: McGraw-hill
Dutrénit, G. (2000). Learning and Knowledge Management in the Firm: From Knowledge Accumulation to Strategic Capabilities. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
Eisenberger, R., Hungtington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507.
Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 565-573.
Feinberg, F. M. (2012). Mediation analysis and categorical variables: Some further frontiers. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(4), 595-598.
Fiedler, K., Schott, M., & Meiser, T. (2011). What mediation analysis can (not) do. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(6), 1231-1236.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 39-50.
Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M.-C. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of the association for information systems, 4(1), 7.
George, J. M., & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: a conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological bulletin, 112(2), 310.
George, J. M., Reed, T. F., Ballard, K. A., Colin, J., & Fielding, J. (1993). Contact with AIDS patients as a source of work-related distress: Effects of organizational and social support. Academy of Management journal, 36(1), 157-171.
Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American sociological review, 25, 161-178.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hon, A. H. (2012). When competency-based pay relates to creative performance: The moderating role of employee psychological need. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 130-138.
Iacobucci, D. (2012). Mediation analysis and categorical variables: The final frontier. Journal of Consumer Psychology, Forthcoming.
James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A., & Brett, J. M. (2006). A tale of two methods. Organizational Journal Methods, 9(2), 233-244. doi: 10.1177/1094428105285144
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2003). LISREL 8: User's Reference Guide. Chicago: IL: Scientific Software.
Kang, I., Song, J. H., & Kim, W. (2012). The mediating effect of team-level knowledge creation on organizational procedural justice and team performance improvement. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 25(2), 4 3 – 6 4. doi: 10.1002/piq.21117
Karatepe, O. M. (2015). High-Performance Work Practices, Perceived Organizational Support, and Their Effects on Job Outcomes: Test of a Mediational Model. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 16(3), 203-223.
Khieng, S., Srinivasa, M., & Chhem, R. (2015). Cambodia Education 2015: Employment and Empowerment. Phnom Penh: CDRI: GIGB Printing House.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Kong, H., Cheung, C., & Song, H. (2012). From hotel career management to employees’ career satisfaction: The mediating effect of career competency. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 76-85.
Lee, H. (2007). What makes teachers learn together within the workplace?: Listening to Korean teachers of English in secondary schools. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 4(1), 59-78.
Markus, K. A. (2012). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling by Rex B. Kline. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 19(3), 509-512.
McCharen, B., Song, J., & Martens, J. (2011). School Innovation The Mutual Impacts of Organizational Learning and Creativity. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 39(6), 676-694.
MoEYS. (2016). Higher Education. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from
Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization science, 5(1), 14-37.
Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge creation company: how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford University Press. New York, USA, 304.
Nonaka, I., Von-Krogh, G., & Voelpel, S. (2006). Organizational knowledge creation theory: Evolutionary paths and future advances. Organization studies, 27(8), 1179-1208.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual review of psychology, 63, 539-569.
Prusak, L., & Matson, E. (2006). Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning: A Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ramirez, A. M., & Kumpikaite, V. (2012). Creation, Transfer and Application of Knowledge and its Importance for Business Innovation and Organizational Performance. International Proceedings of Economics Development & Research, 46(6), 27-31. doi: 10.7763/IPEDR.
Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698-714.
Rutter, R. A., & Jacobson, J. D. (1986). Facilitating Teacher Engagement. Madison, WI: National Center on Effective Secondary Schools.
Saunders, M. N., Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2011). Research Methods for Business Students (5th ed.). India: Pearson Education
Shore, L. M., & Shore, T. H. (1995). Perceived organizational support and organizational justice. Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing the social climate of the workplace, 149-164.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological methodology, 13(1982), 290-312.
Song, J. H., Bae, S. H., Park, S., & Kim, H. K. (2013). Influential factors for knowledge creation practices of CTE teachers: Mutual impact of perceived school support, transformational leadership, and work engagement. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(4), 467-482. doi: 10.1007/s12564-013-9283-8
Song, J. H., Kolb, J. A., Lee, U. H., & Kim, H. K. (2012). Role of transformational leadership in effective organizational knowledge creation practices: Mediating effects of employees' work engagement. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 23(1), 65-101.
Tabri, N., & Elliott, C. M. (2012). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology, 1(1), 59-60.
Von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., & Nonaka, I. (2000). Enabling Knowledge Creation: How to Unlock the Mystery of Tacit Knowledge and Release the Power of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press
Von Krogh, G., Nonaka, I., & Ichijo, K. (1997). Develop knowledge activists. European management journal, 15(5), 475-483.
Wambui, T. W., Wangombe, J. G., & Muthura, M. W. (2013). Linking Human Resource Management to Knowledge Transfer for Organizational Development. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(12), 169-183.
WIKIPEDIA. (2017). Transfer of learning. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from Transfer_of_learning
Woody, E. (2011). An SEM perspective on evaluating mediation: What every clinical researcher needs to know. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 2(2), 210-251.
Yoon, S. W., Song, J. H., & Lim, D. H. (2009). Beyond the learning process and toward the knowledge creation process: Linking learning and knowledge in the supportive learning culture. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(3), 1-21.
Yuan, Y.-H. Y., Wu, M.-H., & Lee, J.-C. (2012). Examining the role of knowledge transfer effect as a mediator variable among impact factors in knowledge innovation. International Journal of Business and Information, 7(2), 205-224.
Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of consumer research, 37(2), 197-206.