Smart Minds Brain Drain from Developing Nations: Case Study of Pakistan

Document Type: Case Study

Authors

1 PhD Student, Graduate School Of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia

2 Senior Lecturer, Graduate School Of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Abstract

Due to globalization, there is a rapid change occurring in social, political and economic segments and the demand for skilled force has dramatically increased all around the globe, particularly in western world. In order to meet constantly increasing demand of skilled labor, developed countries had launched certain immigration policies and offered lucrative compensation packages along with favorable working environment to attract and retain smart think tanks across the globe, largely from underdeveloped countries to the developed countries. This paradigm shift of smart brains is constructively contributing towards the growth of developed nation’s economy. Further it is worth mentioning that it has a negative influence on the native country of these professional immigrants. The prime purpose of this paper to develop the factors which push the skilled labor to migrate. Conceptual discussion is used. The authors identified push and pull factors, such as personal security, immigration programs, decrease in agriculture income, law and order situation of the country, unemployment, decrease compensation incentives. These mentioned factors are considered as an important push factors which motivate skilled labor for a decision to migrate. This paper also discusses the Maslow theory of needs, which also supports the process of migration when individuals fail to acquire their basic needs in their home country. This paper mainly focuses on push and pulls factors which motivate skill labor to migrate. It also discusses the Maslow need theory which also augments the process of migration.

Keywords


Abbas, M., & Raja, U. (2014). Impact of Perceived Organizational Politics on Supervisory-Rated Innovative Performance and Job Stress: Evidence from Pakistan. Journal of Advanced Management Science, 2(2), 158–162. https://doi.org/10.12720/ joams.2.2.158-162
Afridi, F. K. (2014). Strategies for Reversing the Brain Drain of Pakistan through Brain Circulation and Diaspora Option, 11(8), 771–775.
Afzal, S., Iqbal, H., & Inayay, M. (2012). Terrorism and extremism as a non-traditional security threat post 9/11: Implications for Pakistan’s security. International Journal of Business and Social Science. Retrieved from http://www.ijbssnet.com/journals/ Vol_3_No_24_Special_Issue_December_2012/21.pdf
Ahmad, N., Hussain, Z., Hussain, M., Hussain, S. I., & Akram, W. (2008). Macroeconomic Determinants of International Migration from Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 46(2), 85–99.
Altaf, M., Atoofa, K., & Ali, H. (2015). Two-Fold Aspect of Brain Drain in Pakistan : An Empirical Investigation, (December).
American Medical Association. (n.d.). | American Medical Association. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/img/international-medical-graduates-in-american-medicine.pdf.M
Amraiz Khan. (2016). Brain drain alarming as 2.765m went abroad in five years. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from http://nation.com.pk/24-Apr-2016/brain-drain-alarming-as-2-765m-went-abroad-in-five-years
Anastasia. (2015). Brain Drain. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://www. cleverism.com/lexicon/brain-drain/
Associated Press of Pakistan. (n.d.). Brain drain: 2.7m Pakistanis have exited country in last 5 years - The Express Tribune. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://tribune. com.pk/story/649347/brain-drain-2-7m-pakistanis-have-exited-country-in-last-5-years/
Bari,  sarwar. (2014). Implement labour laws - The Express Tribune. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://tribune.com.pk/story/701000/implement-labour-laws/
Bauer, T. N., Morrison, E. W., & Callister, R. R. (1998). Organizational Socialization Research : A Review and Directions for Future Research. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (Vol. 16).
Bokhari, F. (2016). Pakistan farms in crisis as crop prices fall. Retrieved February 1, 2018, from https://www.ft.com/content/4b6847e2-2bc3-11e6-a18d-a96ab29e3c95.
Castles, S., de Haas, H., & Miller, M. J. (2005). The age of migration: International population movements in the modern world (5th ed.). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (5th Ed.). Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc12&NEWS=N&AN=2015-57595-000
Czaika, M., & De Haas, H. (2014). The globalization of migration: Has the world become more migratory? International Migration Review, 48(2), 283–323. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/imre.12095
Datta, P. (1998). Migration to India with special reference to Nepali migration. University of Calcutta.
Datta, P. (2002). Nepali Migration to India. Population Studies.
Docquier, F., & Rapoport, H. (2012). Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(3), 681–730. https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.50.3.681
Dodani, S., & LaPorte, R. E. (2005). Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.98.11.487
General Medical Council. (2012). The state of medical education and practice in the UK 2012. Gmc.
Ghania, A. B. A., & Jauhar, J. (n.d.). BRAIN DRAIN OF MALAYSIAN TALENT TO SINGAPORE Ahmad Bashawir Abdul Ghani, 1–20.
Harris, S. JR & Todaro, M. (1970). Migration, Unemployment and Development:
Hassan Ayub. (2012). Why Pakistani students prefer going abroad? | Pakistan Today. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2012/12/20/ why-pakistani-students-prefer-going-abroad/
Inam, T. (2013). So you want to move to Canada, eh? - The Express Tribune. Retrieved January 31, 2018, from https://tribune.com.pk/story/527197/so-you-want-to-move-to-canada-eh/
Jauhar, J. (2016). Brain drain To Singapore:A Case Study of Malaysian Accounting Professionals.
John Gibson, U. of W., & David McKenzie, W. B. (2010). The Economic Consequences of “Brain Drain” of the Best and Brightest:Microeconomic Evidence from Five Countries, 1–34.
Junaidi, I. (2015). “Religious discrimination harms Pakistan, defies Quaid”s vision’ - Pakistan - DAWN.COM. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://www.dawn .com/news/1222133
Khalid, I., & Kamal, M. (2015). The Homeland Security Initiatives for Pakistan: A Grand Strategy. South Asian Studies, 30(1), 15–36. Retrieved from http://biblioteca.uprag.edu:2048/ login?url=http://136.145.068.118:2048/login?url? url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1696718385?accountid=44848
Khan, A. M. (2003). Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations. Harv. Hum. Rts. J., 16, 217.
Khan, I. M. (2015). Pakistan gunmen kill 45 on Karachi Ismaili Shia bus - BBC News. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-32717321
Korner, H. (1997). {T}he brain drain from developing countries---an enduring problem. Intereconomics, 32(February), 26–30.
Liang, S. C., Khalid, K., Amy E, C., & Anne, A. (2015). Global Terrorism Index: Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism. IEP Report 36, 1–107. https://doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00023
Majeed, M. H., Ali, A. A., & Saeed, F. (2017). International medical graduates: from brain drain to potential gain. International Journal of Medical Education, 8, 37–38. https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.5869.008a
Margaret, W. R. (2004). Transnational migration theory in population geography: Gendered practices in networks linking Canada and India. Population, Space and Place, 10(5), 361–373. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.343
Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A., & Taylor, J. E. (2010). An Evaluation of International Migration Theory : The North American Case Published by : Population Council Stable URL : http://www.jstor.org/stable/2137660, 20(4), 699–751.
Mayda, A. M. (2008). International migration: ∗. I Can, (May).
Migration Policy Institute. (n.d.). Brain Drain & Brain Gain | migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved February 1, 2018, from https://www.migrationpolicy.org/topics/brain-drain-brain-gain
Naqvi, A. A., Zehra, F., Naqvi, S. B. S., Ahmad, R., Ahmad, N., Usmani, S., … Khan, S. J. (2017). Migration trends of pharmacy students of Pakistan: A study investigating the factors behind brain drain of pharmacy professionals from Pakistan. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 51(2), 192–206. https://doi.org/10.5530/ ijper.51.2.25
Naveed, A. (2013). Pakistani Shias kill 7 Sunnis in religious dispute - World - CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/pakistani-shias-kill-7-sunnis-in-religious-dispute-1.2428287
Ngoma, A. L., & Ismai, N. W. (2013). The determinants of brain drain in developing countries. International Journal of Social Economics, 40(8), 744–754. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09564230910978511
Özden, Ç., & Schiff, M. (2006). International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain. Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan.
Ravenstein, E. G. (1885). The Laws of Migration. Journal of the Statistical Society of London. https://doi.org/10.2307/2979181
Riazul Haq. (2015). 177 MPhil, PhD scholars fail to complete their degrees - The Express Tribune. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://tribune.com.pk/story/968595/ brain-drain-177-mphil-phd-scholars-fail-to-complete-their-degrees/
Rizvi, H. uzair. (2016). The Rising Threat Against Shia Muslims in Pakistan - The Wire. Retrieved from https://thewire.in/41862/the-rising-threat-against-shia-muslims-in-pakistan/
Sabharwal, M. (2013). Introduction: Immigration and Its Impact on Human Capital Development. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 15(4), 293–296.
Safdar, T. (2014). Agricultural crisis in Pakistan - The Express Tribune. Retrieved February 1, 2018, from https://tribune.com.pk/story/661560/agricultural-crisis-in-pakistan/
Sassen, S. (1998). The de facto Transnationalizing of Immigration Policy. Challenge to the Nation-State. https://doi.org/10.1093/0198292295.003.0003
Shafqat, S., & Zaidi, A. K. M. (2007). Pakistani Physicians and the Repatriation Equation. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(5), 442–443. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM p068261
Stark, O. (1991). The migration of labour. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.
Taing, M. U., Granger, B. P., Groff, K. W., Jackson, E. M., & Johnson, R. E. (2011). The multidimensional nature of continuance commitment: Commitment owing to economic exchanges versus lack of employment alternatives. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(3), 269–284.
Taylor, E. J. (1999). The New Economics of Labour Migration and the Role of Remittances in the Migration Process. International Migration. https://doi.org/10. 1111/1468-2435.00066
Todaro, M. (1969). A Model of Labor Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries. The American Economic Review. https://doi.org/10.2307/18111 00
TRT World. (n.d.). Why was an Ahmadiyya mosque attacked in Pakistan? Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://www.trtworld.com/asia/why-was-an-ahmadiyya-mosque-attacked-in-pakistan-253511
Walsh, B. M. (1974). Expectations, information, and human migration: specifying an econometric model of Irish migration to Britain. Journal of Regional Science, 14(1), 107–120.
Withers, G., & Pope, D. (1985). Immigration and Unemployment. Economic Record. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4932.1985.tb02010.x
Zhatkanbaevaa, A., Zhatkanbaevab, J., & C, E. Z. (2012). The impact of globalization on “brain drain” in developing countries.