Individual’s Cultural Orientation and Perceived Service Quality in the Hospitality Industry

Document Type: Original Research

Authors

School of Management, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Abstract

The study assessed the effects of individual’s cultural orientation on perceived service quality in the hospitality industry. The study focused on nine (9) rated hotels (3 to 5-star rating) in Ghana. In all, 676 clients were selected from these hotels within a period of 3 months. The dimensions of Hofstede’s model were used in measuring individual’s cultural orientation, whiles SERVQUAL model was also used in measuring perceived service quality. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was run to check for the validity and reliability of the measurement instrument. The study concludes that, low power distance cultural orientation had a positive effect on all the dimensions of perceived service quality of high rated hotels. Low uncertainty avoidance had a positive effect on perceived service assurance, tangibility and responsiveness. It also had a negative effect on perceived service empathy. Low uncertainty avoidance however had no significant effect on perceived service reliability. Individualism cultural orientation had a negative effect on perceived service assurance, reliability, empathy and tangibility of rated hotels. It however had no significant effect on perceived responsiveness. Femininity had a positive effect on perceived assurance and service reliability. For perceived service empathy, tangibility and responsiveness, femininity however, had a negative effect. Finally, short-term cultural orientation also had a positive effect on all the dimensions of perceived service quality.

Keywords


Abdussalam, Z., & Ryan, B. (2011). Religion and cultural dimensions of trust in the emerging financial market in Libya. International Journal of Behavioural Accounting and Finance, 2(3-4), 208-224.
Acosta, A. S., Crespo, Á. H., & Agudo, J. C. (2018). Effect of market orientation, network capability and entrepreneurial orientation on international performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). International Business Review, 27(6), 1128-1140.
Adam, I., & Amuquandoh, F. E. (2013). Dimensions of hotel location in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Tourism Management Perspectives, 8, 1-8.
Anderson, E. W., & Fornell, C. (1994). A customer satisfaction research prospectus. Service quality: New directions in theory and practice, 14(1), 239-266.
Ayeh, J. K. (2007). Determinants of internet usage in Ghanaian hotels: the case of the Greater Accra Region (GAR). Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 15(3), 87-109.
Babakus, E., & Boller, G. W. (1992). An empirical assessment of the SERVQUAL scale. Journal of Business Research, 24(3), 253-268.
Bamfo, B. A., Dogbe, C. S. K., & Mingle, H. (2018a). Abusive customer behaviour and frontline employee turnover intentions in the banking industry: The mediating role of employee satisfaction. Cogent Business & Management, 5(1), 1522753.
Bamfo, B. A., Dogbe, C. S. K., & Osei-Wusu, C. (2018b). The effects of corporate rebranding on customer satisfaction and loyalty: Empirical evidence from the Ghanaian banking industry. Cogent Business & Management, 5(1), 1413970.
Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (2004). Marketing services: Competing through quality: Simon and Schuster.
Brady, M. K., & Cronin Jr, J. J. (2001). Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: a hierarchical approach. Journal of marketing, 65(3), 34-49.
Brown, T. J., Churchill Jr, G. A., & Peter, J. P. (1993). Research note: improving the measurement of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 69(1), 127.
Carman, J. M. (1990). Consumer perceptions of service quality: an assessment of T. Journal of Retailing, 66(1), 33.
Collier, D. A. (1994). The service/quality solution: Using service management to gain competitive advantage: Irwin Professional Publishing.
Costa Jr, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(6), 653-665.
Crick, A. P., & Spencer, A. (2011). Hospitality quality: new directions and new challenges. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(4), 463-478.
Cronin Jr, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1992). Measuring service quality: a reexamination and extension. Journal of marketing, 56(3), 55-68.
Cronin Jr, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1994). SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL: reconciling performance-based and perceptions-minus-expectations measurement of service quality. Journal of marketing, 58(1), 125-131.
Dabholkar, P. A., Thorpe, D. I., & Rentz, J. O. (1996). A measure of service quality for retail stores: scale development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(1), 3.
Dagger, T. S., Sweeney, J. C., & Johnson, L. W. (2007). A hierarchical model of health service quality: scale development and investigation of an integrated model. Journal of service research, 10(2), 123-142.
Donthu, N., & Yoo, B. (1998). Cultural influences on service quality expectations. Journal of service research, 1(2), 178-186.
Echchabi, A. (2012). The relationship between religiosity and customers’ adoption of Islamic banking services in Morocco. Oman Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 34(967), 1-6.
Endara, Y. M., Ali, A. B., & Yajid, M. S. A. (2019). The influence of culture on service quality leading to customer satisfaction and moderation role of type of bank. Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, 10(1), 134-154.
Finn, D. W. (1991). An evaluation of the SERVQUAL scales in a retailing setting. ACR North American Advances.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
Furrer, O., Liu, B. S.-C., & Sudharshan, D. (2000). The relationships between culture and service quality perceptions: Basis for cross-cultural market segmentation and resource allocation. Journal of service research, 2(4), 355-371.
Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures (Vol. 5019): Basic books.
Ghana Statistical Service. (2018). Provisional 2017 Annual Gross Domestic Product.  Retrieved 29/11/2018, from Ghana Statistical Service http://www2.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/GDP/GDP2018/2017%20Quarter%204%20and%20annual%202017%20GDP%20publications/Annual_2017_GDP_April%202018%20Edition.pdf
Goldberg, L. R. (1981). Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. Review of personality and social psychology, 2(1), 141-165.
Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative" description of personality": the big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1216.
Guesalaga, R., & Pitta, D. (2014). The importance and formalization of service quality dimensions: a comparison of Chile and the USA. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 31(2), 145-151.
Hallikainen, H., & Laukkanen, T. (2018). National culture and consumer trust in e-commerce. International Journal of Information Management, 38(1), 97-106.
Hinson, R. E., Abdul-Hamid, I. K., & Osabutey, E. L. (2017). Investigating market orientation and positioning in star-rated hotels in Ghana. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(10), 2629-2646.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture and organizations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 10(4), 15-41.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Organizations and cultures: Software of the mind. McGrawHill, New York.
Hofstede, G. (1994). The business of international business is culture. International Business Review, 3(1), 1-14.
Hofstede, G. (2003). What is culture? A reply to Baskerville. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 28(7-8), 811-813.
Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind (Revised and expanded 2nd ed.). New York.
Horovitz, J. (1990). Winning ways: Achieving zero-defect service: Productivity Pr.
Inkeles, A., & Levinson, D. J. (1969). National character: The study of modal personality and sociocultural systems. The handbook of social psychology, 4, 418-506.
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 2(1999), 102-138.
Khayyat, N. T., & Heshmati, A. (2012). Determinants of mobile phone customer satisfaction in the Kurdistan region. Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, 2(3), 1-7.
Kim, B., Zhou, L., & Liu, A. (2018). Culture and Service Quality: Case of Hong Kong Quality Services and Experiences in Hospitality and Tourism (pp. 59-74): Emerald Publishing Limited.
Kluckhohn, C. (1951). Values and value-orientations in the theory of action: An exploration in definition and classification.
Kluckhohn, F. R. (1951). Dominant and variant cultural value orientations. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the National Conference on Social Welfare.
Kroeber, A. L. (1952). The nature of culture.
Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Papers. Peabody Museum of Archaeology & Ethnology, Harvard University.
Kuada, J., & Hinson, R. E. (2014). Service Marketing in Ghana: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd.
Kueh, K., & Ho Voon, B. (2007). Culture and service quality expectations: Evidence from Generation Y consumers in Malaysia. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 17(6), 656-680.
Lagrosen, S. (2003). Exploring the impact of culture on quality management. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 20(4), 473-487.
Liu, D., Bishu, R. R., & Najjar, L. (2005). Using the analytical hierarchy process as a tool for assessing service quality. Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, 4(2), 129-135.
Lu, Y., Zhang, L., & Wang, B. (2009). A multidimensional and hierarchical model of mobile service quality. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 8(5), 228-240.
Mattila, A. S. (1999). The role of culture and purchase motivation in service encounter evaluations. Journal of Services Marketing, 13(4/5), 376-389.
Morales Espinoza, M. (1999). Assessing the cross-cultural applicability of a service quality measure a comparative study between Quebec and Peru. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 10(5), 449-468.
Nakata, C., & Sivakumar, K. (2001). Instituting the marketing concept in a multinational setting: the role of national culture. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(3), 255-276.
Narteh, B., Agbemabiese, G. C., Kodua, P., & Braimah, M. (2013). Relationship marketing and customer loyalty: Evidence from the Ghanaian luxury hotel industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 22(4), 407-436.
Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(6), 574.
Novixoxo, J. D., Pomegbe, W. W. K., & Dogbe, C. S. K. (2018). Market Orientation, Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in the Public Utility Companies. European Journal of Business and Management, 10(30), 10.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). Servqual: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perc. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students. Essex. Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2): John Wiley & Sons.
Sharma, P., Tam, J. L., Kim, N., Zhan, W., & Su, Y. (2018). Intercultural service encounters (ICSEs): Challenges and opportunities for international services marketers Advances in Global Marketing (pp. 449-469): Springer.
Solomon, M. R., Polegato, R., & Zaichkowsky, J. L. (2009). Consumer behavior: buying, having, and being. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Teas, R. K. (1993). Consumer expectations and the measurement of perceived service quality. Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 8(2), 33-54.
Teas, R. K. (1994). Expectations as a comparison standard in measuring service quality: an assessment of a reassessment. Journal of marketing, 58(1), 132-139.
Triandis, H. C. (1972). The analysis of subjective culture.
Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M. J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(2), 323.
Trivellas, P., & Dargenidou, D. (2009). Organisational culture, job satisfaction and higher education service quality: The case of Technological Educational Institute of Larissa. The TQM Journal, 21(4), 382-399.
Tsoukatos, E., & Rand, G. K. (2007). Cultural influences on service quality and customer satisfaction: evidence from Greek insurance. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 17(4), 467-485.
Winsted, K. F. (1997). The service experience in two cultures: A behavioral perspective. Journal of Retailing, 73(3), 337-360.
Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2005). The effect of personal cultural orientation on consumer ethnocentrism: Evaluations and behaviors of US consumers toward Japanese products. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 18(1-2), 7-44.
Yoo, B., Donthu, N., & Lenartowicz, T. (2011). Measuring Hofstede's five dimensions of cultural values at the individual level: Development and validation of CVSCALE. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(3-4), 193-210.
Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1993). The nature and determinants of customer expectations of service. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21(1), 1-12.
Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., Berry, L. L., & Berry, L. L. (1990). Delivering quality service: Balancing customer perceptions and expectations: Simon and Schuster.